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PSYC 271 Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 271
Professor
Dr.Richard Benninger
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC  271  Notes  –  Brain  and  Behaviour  I     Applied  research  is  conducted  in  order  to  directly  benefit  mankind.       Branches  of  biopsychology     Physiological  psychology  studies  the  neural  mechanisms  of  behaviour  through  direct   manipulation  of  the  brain.  (Mostly  pure  research).     Psychopharmacology  is  similar  to  physiological  psychology,  except  that  drugs  are  used  to   manipulate  the  brain.  (Mostly  applied  research).     Neuropsychology  is  the  study  of  brain  damage  effects  on  behaviour/psychology.   Quasiexperiments  and  case  studies  are  relied  on,  as  it  is  unethical  to  inflict  brain  damage.  The   cerebral  cortex  is  the  most  often  studied,  as  it  is  the  most  likely  structure  of  the  brain  to  be   damaged.  (Applied  research).       Psychophysiology  studies  the  relation  between  physiological  activity  and  psychological   processes  in  human  subjects.  Because  they  involve  human  subjects,  tests  need  to  be  noninvasive   (example,  EEGs,  measuring  heart  rate,  blood  pressure,  etc).  (Mostly  pure  research,  involving   understanding  attention  and  emotion).     Cognitive  neuroscience  studies  the  neural  basis  of  cognition  using  human  subjects  and   noninvasive  procedures.       Comparative  psychology  is  the  study  of  evolution,  genetics,  and  adaptiveness  of  behaviour,   largely  through  the  use  of  the  comparative  method.         [...]      Converging  operations   • Since  a  lot  of  biopsychology  questions  cannot  be  answered  by  a  single  experiment  or  even  a   series  of  experiments,  different  ways  of  tackling  the  same  problem  are  required.       Korsakoff’s  syndrome:  characterized  by  severe  memory  loss,  usually  the  result  of  prolonged   alcohol  abuse.     Morgan’s  Canon:   Rule  that  states  when  there  are  several  possible  interpretations  for  a  behavioural  observation,   precedence  is  given  to  the  simplest  observation.  Example:  Jose  and  the  bull.       Moniz  and  the  prefrontal  lobotomy   There  was  an  isolated  case  in  which  a  chimpanze e  no  longer  became  upset  at  not  achieving  a  task  after  she   had  damage  to  her  prefrontal  lobes.   Moniz  drew  a  conclusion  from  this  isolated  event  that  the  prefrontal   cortex  controlled  negative  mood  and  behaviour.  He  convinced  surgeons  to  perform  lobotomies  o n  different   patients.  A  leucotome  was  the  device  used  to  remove  parts  of  the  cortex.   Lobotomies  were  regarded  as  a  
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