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PSYC334 Ch 12.pdf

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Queen's University
PSYC 334
Ronald R Holden

PSYC  334   Chapter  12   Employment  and  Vocational  Testing     Tests  used  for  employment  and  vocational  testing  do  not  necessarily  break  down  into  correct  and   incorrect  answers.       Employment  and  vocational  testing  often  seeks  to  measure...   -­‐ Cognitive  ability   -­‐ Attitudes   -­‐ Knowledge   -­‐ Skills   -­‐ Opinions   -­‐ Interests     ...  as  they  relate  to....   -­‐ Job  performance   -­‐ Productivity   -­‐ Tenure   -­‐ Absenteeism     Equal  Employment  Opportunity  Commission  under  the  federal  government  (US)  monitors   employment  testing  to  ensure  that  there  are  no  unfair  criteria  on  tests.     Historical  view  of  industrial-­‐organizational  psychology.     Industrial-­‐organizational  psychology  (I-­‐O):  study  of  psychology  concerned  with  organizations,   often  used  in  business;  interested  in  human  behaviour  in  the  workplace.       -­‐ Hugo  Munsterburg   -­‐ James  McKeen  Cattell   -­‐ Walter  Dill  Scott   -­‐ Walter  VanDyke  Bingham     During  World  War  I  three  major  companies  were  created  that  devoted  energies  to  I-­‐O  psychology.   -­‐ Scott  Company  –  Walter  Dill  Scott   -­‐ Psychological  Corporation  –  James  McKeen  Cattell   -­‐ Association  of  Consulting  Psychologists     The  Hawthorne  studies  are  a  famous  example  of  applied  field  I-­‐O  psychology.     (12  :  1)   PSYC  334       -­‐ Expansion  of  I-­‐O  psychology  during  WWII   -­‐ Placement  of  recruits     Huge  growth  area  of  psychology  –  projected  increase  of  21%  between  2006-­‐2016     Personnel  selection  approaches.     -­‐ Cognitive  ability   -­‐ Interviews   -­‐ Personality   -­‐ Integrity   -­‐ Assessment  centres   -­‐ Work  sample  tests   -­‐ Biodata     Cognitive  ability.     Cognitive  ability  tests  can  predict  a  wide  variety  of  job  performance  variables.     (12  :  2)   PSYC  334   Cognitive  ability  tests   -­‐ Reasoning   -­‐ Verbal  ability   -­‐ Math  ability   -­‐ Perception   -­‐ Problem  solving     Findings  of  John  Hunter  and  Frank  Schmidt   -­‐ Correlation  between  cognitive  ability  and  job  performance,  r  =  0.53.   -­‐ R  values  from  multiple  regression  analyses:  integrity  (0.65),  work  sample  tests  (0.63),   structured  interview  (0.63),  conscientiousness  (0.60)   -­‐ Cognitive  ability  test  scores  predict:  job  level  attained,  job  performance   -­‐ Using  cognitive  ability  tests  in  hiring  saved  the  government  $15  billion  in  1984     Recall  that,  on  ability  tests,  minority  groups  can  fall  one  whole  SD  lower  than  nonminority  groups.   This  can  mean  unfair  discrimination  in  hiring.  Next  are  some  strategies  that  were  studied  to  avoid   this  problem.     Strategy   Findings   Combine  cognitive  ability  tests  and   -­‐ Complex  factors  involved  in  testing   noncognitive  predictors  of  job  performance     outcomes,  including  validities  of  each   predictor,  relationships  between   predictors,  way  in  which  tests  are  used   Identify  and  remove  items  that  are  culturally   -­‐ Efforts  to  remove  biased  items  from   biased   tests  show  negligible  differences  in   outcome   -­‐ Removal  of  biased  items  still   recommended   Present  test  items  in  a  way  that  reduces   -­‐ Reduces  subgroup  differences,  but  does   demands  of  verbal  or  written  skills   not  necessarily  remove  adverse  impact   Manipulate  instructional  sets  in  order  to   -­‐ Needs  additional  research.  So  far,  only   increase  applicants’  motivation  to  complete   seen  in  a  lab  setting  and  has  limited   preemployment  tests   effect  size   Directly  measure  aspects  of  the  job  of  interest,   -­‐ Some  reduction  in  subgroup  differences   using  portfolios,  accomplishment  records,  or   -­‐ Mixed  findings   performance  assessments   Provide  coaching  and  study/practice  materials   -­‐ Negligible  effect  on  subgroup  differences   -­‐ Applicants  like  this,  which  can  improve   the  process     Problem  with  cognitive  ability  testing  in  hiring:  maximize  performance  but  can  minimize   diversity.     Wonderlic  Personnel  Test:  one  of  the  most  widely  used  cognitive  ability  tests  used  in  hiring.   Famous  for  being  used  in  NFL  recruiting.   (12  :  3)   PSYC  334   Interviews.     Employment  interviews:  one  of  the  most  frequent  hiring  approaches.     -­‐ Structured  or  unstructured  (are  questions  prepared  before-­‐hand?)     -­‐ Unclear  reliability  in  predicting  job  performance   -­‐ Reports  anywhere  from  0.20  to  0.56  –  although  subjective  can  have  added  value     Steps  for  developing  structured  interviews   1. Develop  questions  based  on  the  characteristics  that  will  lead  to  job  success.   2. Ask  the  same  questions  of  each  candidate.   3. Develop  rating  scales  for  scoring  answers.   4. Use  a  panel  of  interviewers.   5. Be  consistent  in  administering  the  process  to  all  candidates.   6. Document  the  interview  questions  and  scoring  procedures.     Personality.     Personality:  unique  characteristics  that  define  an  individual  and  are  used  by  the  individual  when   interacting  with  others.     Cannot,  by  law,  use  diagnostic  tests!  Also  cannot  invade  privacy  by  asking  innermost  thoughts  and   feelings.     Big  Five  Trait   Predictive  contexts   Conscientiousness   -­‐ Better  job  performance   Extraversion   -­‐ Better  job  performance  in  management  or  sales   Openness  to  experience   -­‐ Better  performance  in  job  training   Neuroticism  &  Agreeableness   -­‐ None     Major  problems  of  personality  testing  for  employee  hiring:   -­‐ Low  validity  coefficients   -­‐ Overestimation  of  effect  from  meta-­‐analyses   -­‐ Applicant  faking     Hogan  Personality  Inventory:  nonclinical  personality  inventory  used  for  hiring.  It  is   nonintrusive  and  noninvasive.  Measures  the  following  constructs.   -­‐ Adjustment:  performance  under  pressure.   -­‐ Ambition:  leadership,  values  achievement.   -­‐ Sociability:  needs  or  enjoys  social  interaction.   -­‐ Prudence:  self-­‐control  and  conscientiousness.   -­‐ Inquisitive:  creative  and  analytical.   -­‐ Learning  approach:  enjoyment  of  academic  activities  and  education.   -­‐ Strengths  and  shortcomings   -­‐ Specific  traits  related  to  the  job   (12  :  4)   PSYC  334   Integrity.     Integrity  testing:  used  to  identify  tendency  to  be  honest  or  dishonest.  Can  be  overt  or   personality-­‐oriented.   -­‐ SR   -­‐ Alternative  to  (now  illegal  for  hiring)  polygraph  tests   -­‐ Can  be  faked     0.41  validity  coeff.  with  job  performance  greater  incremental  validity  than  cognitive  ability  tests!     Overt  integrity  tests:  include  questions  about  general  attitudes  on  things  like  theft  and  admitting   previous  wrongdoing.       Personality-­‐oriented  integrity  tests:  identify  personality  traits  related  to  theft.   -­‐ Conscientiousness   -­‐ Sensation/thrill  seeking     Personnel  Selection  Inventory:  well-­‐established  integrity  test  used  for  hiring.     -­‐ Honesty   -­‐ Tenure   -­‐ Nonviolence   -­‐ Employee/Customer  relations   -­‐ Customer  service  aptitude   -­‐ Sales  aptitude   -­‐ Stress  tolerance   -­‐ Risk  avoidance   -­‐ Safety   -­‐ Supervision  attitude   -­‐ Work  values   -­‐ Responsibility   -­‐ Candidness   -­‐ Accuracy     How  does  this  work?  If  the  tendency  is  to  lie,  won’t  applicants  lie  about  being  honest?   -­‐ Since  hiring  evaluations  instruct  examinees  to  be  honest,  those  who  are  dishonest  take   extra  precaution  to  cover  their  tracks.  They  are  willing  to  admit  taking  small  amounts  of   money,  because  they  believe  that  it  is  common  behaviour  to  steal  from  work  and  that  it   would  seem  too  suspicious  if  they  reported  taking  $0.       Assessment  centres.     Assessment  centre:  collection  of  exercises  designed  to  stimulate  a  variety  of  situations  that  are   experienced  in  the  work  environment.  Can  be  used  for  hiring  and/or  training.   -­‐ Usually  1  –  3  days       (12  :  5)   PSYC  334   Exercises  common  in  assessment  centres:   -­‐ In-­‐basket  exercises   -­‐ Simulated  interviews   -­‐ Group  discussion   -­‐ Fact-­‐finding   -­‐ Oral  presentations     Those  participating  are  then  rated  on...   -­‐ Communication   -­‐ Drive   -­‐ Consideration  of  others   -­‐ Organizing/planning   -­‐ Stress  tolerance   -­‐ etc.     Assessment  centres  have  low  correlation  with  personality  and  cognitive  ability  tests.  They  are  able   to  predict  job  performance  above  and  beyond  these  aforementioned  methods.     Work  sample  tests.     Work  sample  tests:  applicants  must  perform  tasks  related  to  the  job  (i.e.,  work  samples).  This  is   sometimes  called  simulations.     -­‐ Strong  face  validity     Not  a  very  common  method  of  prediction.  Limitations:   -­‐ Great  effort  to  design  a  work  sample  that  effectively  represents  the  breadth  of  the  job   -­‐ Assumes  applicants  have  knowledge/skills  related  to  the  job   -­‐ Expensive  to  develop,  administer,  and  score     Statistical  limitations   -­‐ Not  consistently  effective  (r  =  0.33)   -­‐ Large  discrimination  between  races  (d  =  0.73)     Biodata.     Biodata:  biographical  data;  refers  to  personal  experiences,  background.     -­‐ Work  and  educational  experience   -­‐ Hobbies,  interests,  attitudes     Provides  only  small  incremental  prediction  of  job  performance             (12  :  6)   PSYC  334   Biodata  Attribute   Description   Historical   -­‐ Past  behaviour   External   -­‐ Behaviours  that  have  occurred  (i.e.,  not  attitudes)   Objective   -­‐ Events  that  can  be  objectively  recalled   -­‐ Firsthand  knowledge   Discrete  actions   -­‐ Single  events,  unique  behaviours   -­‐ Not  a  summary  of  average  behaviours   Verifiable   -­‐ Can  be  verified  by  an  independent  source   Controllable   -­‐ Things  that  the  respondent  controlled  as  opposed  to   things  that  passively  happened  to  them.  Consider:   -­‐ “How  many  times  have  you  taken  a  college  entrance   exam?”   -­‐ “What  is  the  maximum  number  of  coworkers  you’ve  had?”   Equally  accessible   -­‐ Asks  about  opportunities  that  were  equally  accessible  to   all  applicants.  Consider:   -­‐ “Were  you  school  president?”   -­‐ “Were  you  the  captain  of  the  volleyball  team?”   Visibly  job  relevant   -­‐ Face  valid  traits  of  the  job   Noninvasive   -­‐ Do  not  invade  privacy  or  break  the  law       Choosing  a  personnel  selection  approach.     Consider   -­‐ Effectiveness   -­‐ Cost   -­‐ Appropriateness  given  the  job   -­‐ Time   -­‐ Legal     Society  for  Industrial  and  Organizational  Psychology  (SIOP):  division  of  APA  that  studies   human  well-­‐being  and  performance  in  work  settings.     Method   Advantages   Disadvantages   Cognitive  ability  tests   -­‐ Valid  across  job  types   -­‐ Costly  to  develop   -­‐ Easy  administration  +  requires   custom  versions   little  training  to  administer   -­‐ Ethnic  and  gender   -­‐ Cost-­‐effective   differences   -­‐ Limits  faking   Interviews   -­‐ Favourable  to  applicants   -­‐ Rating  errors  and  biases   -­‐ Communication  between   -­‐ Social  desirability   parties   -­‐ Legal  challenges  if  used   -­‐ Measure  of  verbal   for  diagnosis   communication   -­‐ Less  likely  differences  from   ethnic  and  gender  biases   (12  :  7)   PSYC  334   Personality  tests   -­‐ Valid  across  organizational   -­‐ Less  favourable  to   outcomes   applicants   -­‐ Less  likely  differences  from   -­‐ Social  desirability   ethnic  and  gender  biases   -­‐ Legal  challenges  if  used   -­‐ Easy  administration   for  diagnosis   Integrity  tests   -­‐ Valid  across  organizational   -­‐ Less  favourable  to  
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