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PSYC334 Ch 11.pdf

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Queen's University
PSYC 334
Ronald R Holden

PSYC  334   Chapter  11   Behavioural  Assessment     Moving  toward  using  less  inferential  methods  of  assessing  behaviour  and  basing  diagnoses  on   observable  behaviour.     Schools  mandate  that  special  education  and  services  be  provided  to  students  with  emotional   disorders.  This  means  that  the  schools  must  have  the  means  to  identify  these  students.     Behavioural  assessment  relies  on  typical  response  tests.  Up  until  now  the  focus  has  mainly  been   on  maximum  response  tests  (e.g.,  achievement  and  ability  tests).     Typical  response  tests  are  used  to  measure  constructs  such  as  personality,  behaviour,  attitudes,   and  interests.     Behavioural  assessment:  measure  of  typical  responding  that  emphasizes  what  a  person  does   (i.e.,  his  or  her  observable  behaviour).       Behavioural  assessment  is  different  from  other  types  of  assessment  in  psychology,  because  most   tests  focus  on  what  a  person  has  as  opposed  to  what  a  person  does.     Behavioural  assessment   Personality  assessment   -­‐  Typical  response  tests   -­‐  Typical  response  tests   -­‐  What  a  person  does   -­‐  What  a  person  has   -­‐  Overt   -­‐  Covert   -­‐  More  objective   -­‐  Less  objective   -­‐  Typically  does  not  involve  interpretation   -­‐  Involves  interpretation   -­‐  Questions  focus  on  the  presence  and   -­‐  Questions  focus  on  feelings  and  attitudes   frequency  of  behaviours       Key  difference:  level  of  inference  involved  in  the  interpretation  of  the  scores.     Level  of  inference  is  reduced  using  the  multimethod,  multimodal  approach.  Involves  assessing   information  collected  from  various  sources:   -­‐ Behavioural  interviewing   -­‐ Direct  observation   -­‐ Impressionistic  behaviour  rating  scales   -­‐ SR  personality  scales     Behaviour  is  seen  as  context-­‐specific,  although  there  are  many  exceptions  to  be  aware  of  (e.g.,   locus  of  control,  depression  and  anxiety,  impulsivity).       Early  behavioural  assessment  focused  on  counting  target  behaviours  in  specific  settings.     (11  :  1)   PSYC  334   Assessing  behaviour.       We  make  crude  assessments  of  behaviour  all  the  time  as  a  way  of  deciding  who  we  should  and   should  not  spend  time  with.     Benefits  of  behavioural  rating  scales:   -­‐ Identify  behavioural  dimensions  (clusters  of  behaviours  that  co-­‐occur)   -­‐ Compare  examinee  to  normative  population  (how  rare  are  these  behaviours?)   -­‐ Is  the  behavioural  within  normal  limits  or  does  it  require  psychological   intervention?   -­‐ Can  be  used  regularly  –  monitoring  purposes     -­‐ No  practice  effects     Response  sets.     Response  sets:  test  responses  that  misrepresent  a  person’s  true  characteristics.     Dissimulation:  making  yourself  or  another  person  seem  dissimilar  from  the  way  they  truly  are.     Behavioural  assessments  usually  incorporate  validity  scales.             (11  :  2)   PSYC  334   Assessment  of  behaviour  in  schools.     Individuals  with  Disabilities  Education  Improvement  Act  of  2004  (IDEA  2004):  mandates   that  schools  provide  special  education  and  related  services  to  students  with  emotional  disorders.     -­‐ Schools  have  to  be  able  to  identify  these  students  –  this  means  expanded  testing  of   personality  and  behaviour     Behavioural  assessments  are  most  common  in  schools  (as  opposed  to  clinical  settings)  due  to  the   above  legislation.       Behavioural  assessment  in  schools  usually  uses...   -­‐ Behaviour  rating  scales   -­‐ SR   -­‐ Projective  techniques     Evidence-­‐based  practice:  using  professional  practices  that  have  clear  support  from  the  science   underlying  the  profession.     Psychology  is  moving  strongly  toward  evidence-­‐based  practice.  Conflictingly...   -­‐ 50%  of  behavioural  assessment  in  schools  uses  behavioural  rating  scales   -­‐ 40%  of  behavioural  assessment  in  schools  uses  projective  techniques     Typical  behavioural  assessment  in  schools   1. Observing  students,  watching  for  particular  behaviours   2. Interviewing  teachers   3. Behavioural  rating  scales  completed  by  teachers   -­‐ Helpful,  because  provides  information  about  behaviour  in  both  academic  and  social   domains     Behavioural  interviewing.     -­‐ Clinical  interview     -­‐ Identifying  the  presenting  problem   -­‐ Obtaining  detailed  history   -­‐ Current  mood   -­‐ Traits  of  interest     This  could  begin  with  the  parent  if  the  client  is  a  child.       -­‐ Behavioural  interview:  identifies  the  antecedents  and  consequences  of  behaviour,   attempts  to  change  behaviours,  and  reinforcement  history.           (11  :  3)   PSYC  334   Steps  of  behavioural  interviewing  defined  by  Ramsay,  Reynolds,  and  Kamphaus  (2002):     1. Identify  the  presenting  problem  and  define  it  in  behavioural  terms.     2. Identify  environmental  contingencies  supporting  the  behaviours.     3. Develop  a  plan  to  alter  these  contingencies  and  reinforcers  to  modify  the  behaviour.     4. Implement  the  plan.     5. Evaluate  outcomes  of  intervention  using  behavioural  rating  scales  (and  comparing  these   to  baseline  at  first  presentation).     6. Modify  the  intervention  if  the  behaviour  is  not  responding  and  evaluate  the  outcome  of   these  changes.     Minimize  the  subjectivity  and  inferences  made  about  the  client  by  using  behaviours.     -­‐ Make  a  plan   -­‐ Set  clear  goals   -­‐ Monitor  progress     Behaviour  rating  scales     Behaviour  rating  scale:  informant  is  asked  to  rate  an  individual  on  a  number  of  dimensions.     Examples  of  informants:   -­‐ Parent  or  teacher   -­‐ Spouse   -­‐ Health  care  worker     Behaviours  are  given  and  are  rated  on  a  scale  based  on  frequency.             Behavioural  rating  scales  are  used  most  often  with  children  and  adolescents  (although  they  are   being  used  with  adults  –  more  information  later  in  the  chapter).     -­‐ Reduces  problems  associated  with  lack  of  awareness  of  own  behaviours   -­‐ Information  from  a  variety  of  settings  and  many  occasions   (11  :  4)   PSYC  334   Benefits:   -­‐ Cost  effective   -­‐ Time  efficient     -­‐ Can  identify  rare  behaviours  that  could  be  missed  in  a  behavioural  interview   -­‐ Accurately  predict  diagnosis   -­‐ Predict  problem  behaviours  and  learning  problems   -­‐ Detect  changes  in  behaviour     Limitations:   -­‐ Response  sets   -­‐ Misses  behavioural  problems  that  are  internalized  (e.g.,  depression)     Scores  on  behaviour  rating  scales  are  impressionistic  (i.e.,  depend  on  the  impressions  of  the   person  completing  the  scale).       Behaviour  rating  scales   -­‐ Behaviour  Assessment  System  for  Children  –  second  edition   -­‐ Achenbach  System  of  Empirically  Based  Assessment  –  child  behaviour  checklist  and   teacher  report  form   -­‐ Single  domain  rating  scales   -­‐ Adult  behaviour  rating  scales     Behaviour  Assessment  System  for  Children  –  second  edition.     KNOW  THIS  TEST  FOR  THE  EXAM.       Behaviour  Assessment  System  for  Children  –  second  edition  (BASC  2):  integrated  set  of   instruments  including  a  Teacher  Rating  Scale  (TRS),  Parent  Rating  Scale  (PRS),  self-­‐report  scales,   classroom  observation  system,  parent-­‐child  relationship  assessment  scale,  and  structured   developmental  history.     Teacher  Rating  Scale  (TRS):  emphasis  on  behaviours  in  school  setting.       Parent  Rating  Scale  (PRS):  emphasis  on  behaviours  at  home  and  in  a   community  setting.     -­‐ Most  common  behaviour  rating  scales  used  in  public  schools     -­‐ 2  –  21  years     Never;  Sometimes;  Often;  Almost  Always.           (11  :  5)   PSYC  334   Subscales  of  the  TRS  and  PRS     1. Adaptability:  ability  to  adapt  to  changes  in  one’s  environment.     2. Activities  of  daily  living:  skills  associated  with  performing  everyday  tasks.     3. Aggression:  acting  with  verbal  or  physical  hostility  that  threatens  others.     4. Anxiety:  nervous  or  fearful  about  actual  or  imagined  situations.     5. Attention  problems:  easily  distracted,  difficulty  concentrating.     6. Atypicality:  behaviours  that  are  immature,  bizarre,  or  suggest  psychotic  processes  (e.g.,   hallucinations).     7. Conduct  problems:  antisocial  behaviour  (e.g.,  cruelty,  destructiveness).     8. Depression:  feelings  of  sadness.     9. Functional  communication:  communicating  thoughts  and  ideas  in  a  way  that  others  can   understand.     10.Hyperactivity:  overactive  and  impulsive.     11.Leadership:  ability  to  work  with  others  and  achieve  academic  and  social  goals.     12.Learning  problems:  presence  of  academic  difficulties  (only  on  the  TRS).     13.Social  skills:  ability  to  interact  well  with  peers  and  adults  in  a  variety  of  settings.     14.Somatization:  tendency  to  complain  about  minor  physical  problems.     15.Study  skills:  skills  associated  with  academic  success  (only  on  the  TRS).     16.Withdrawal:  inclination  to  avoid  social  contact.     Composite  scores  (determined  by  combining  above  primary  scales)     1. Adaptive  skills   2. Behavioural  symptoms  index   3. Externalizing  problems   4. Internalizing  problems   5. School  problems         (11  :  6)   PSYC  334   Composite  score   Primary  scales       1. Adaptive  skills:  social,  academic,  and   -­‐ Activities  of  daily  living   other  positive  skills.   -­‐ Adaptability     -­‐ Leadership     -­‐ Social  skills   -­‐ Study  skills         2. Behavioural  symptoms  index:   -­‐ Aggression   nonspecific  index  of  pathology.   -­‐ Attention  problems     -­‐ Anxiety   -­‐ Atypicality   -­‐ Depression   -­‐ Somatization         3. Externalizing  problems:  measure  of   -­‐ Aggression   disruptive  tendencies.     -­‐ Conduct  problems     -­‐ Hyperactivity         4. Internalizing  problems:  internal   -­‐ Anxiety   discomfort  or  distress.  Boys  may  be   -­‐ Depression   misdiagnosed  as  having  ADHD.     -­‐ Somatization         5. School  problems:  behaviours  that   -­‐ Attention  probl
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