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Chapter 8

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PSYC 342
Dean A Tripp

Chapter 8- Seeing Our Futures through Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Hope Self-Efficacy Albert Bandura - Belief that you can accomplish goals - Based on a sense of personal control - Self-efficacy = peoples beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions MADDUX: what I believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions - Self-efficacy includes: o Outcome expectancies- what needs to be done to reach a goal o Efficacy expectancies- capacity to complete necessary actions - Learned human pattern of thinking - Begins in infancy and continues through life - Based on social cognitive theory: humans actively shape their own lives 1) Humans have powerful capacities for creating models of their experiences 2) People are skilled at self-regulation as they navigate environmental events 3) People and their personalities are a result of these situation-specific reciprocal interactions of thoughtsenvironmentthoughts - We learn by observing how we can influence the surrounding circumstances Developmental Antecedents 1) Previous similar successes 2) Modeling 3) Imagery/visualization 4) Verbal persuasion 5) Arousal and emotion Neurobiology of self-efficacy: - Role of frontal and prefrontal lobes - Self-efficacy yields sense of control o Production of neuroendocrines and catecholemines Situation Specific Self-Efficacy Measures - Efficacy beliefs should be measured in terms of particular capacities in different domains and under different circumstances - Examples: Career self-efficacy scale, Occupational questionnaire, Career counseling self-efficacy scale, Coping self-efficacy scale, Cultural self-efficacy scale, Memory self-efficacy scale Dispositional Measures of Self-Efficacy - Self-Efficacy Scale: 2 main factors = general and social self-efficacy o Cross-situational perspective Higher Self-Efficacy predicts: Self-Efficacy in Psychological Adjustment - High self-efficacy related to: o Successful coping o Overcoming eating disorders and abuse o Life satisfaction - Enablement Factors Self-Efficacy in Physical Health - High self-efficacy related to: o Increased health-related behaviours o Decreased unhealthy behaviours o Increased immune functioning o Increased catecholemines o Increased pain endorphins Self-Efficacy in Psychotherapy - Self-efficacy as a common factor in therapy - Build self-efficacy in therapy via the 5 developmental antecedents Collective Self-Efficacy - Collective self-efficacy = The extent to which we believe that we can work together effectively to accomplish our goals- Maddux - No agreement on how to measure - Plays a role in classrooms and work teams Learned Optimism Martin Seligman, University of Penn - Based on learned helplessness and attributional style theories - Aimed at distancing the person from negative outcomes of high importance - Optimists make external, variable, and specific attributions for failure - Pessimists make internal, stable, and global attributions for failure Childhood Antecedents of Learned Optimism - Partly genetic - Partly learned: o Promoted via safe, coherent environments o Adaptive excusing modelled by parents Pessimism - Develops when modelled by parents - Related to parental death or divorce, abuse, incest - Link to television viewing Neurobiology of Optimism and Pessimism - Pessimism and depression related to: o Abnormal limbic system functioning o Dysfunctional operations of the lateral prefrontal cortex and paralimbic system o Deficiencies of neurotransmitters o Depleted endorphins and serotonin - Neurobiological markers linked to perceived control and pessimism-depression thoughts Measures of Learned Optimism - Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ): poses either a negative or positive event, and respondents are asked to indicate what they believe to be the causal explanation of those events on the dimensions of internal/external, stable/transient, and global/specific - Childrens Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) - Content Analysis of Verbal Explanation approach (CAVE): derives optimism from written or spoken words unobtrusive means Learned Optimism - Learned optimism associated with: o Better academic performances o Superior athletic performances o Work productivity o Relationship satisfaction o Effective coping o Less vulnerability to depression o Superior physical health Optimism Optimists vs. Pessimists - Optimists know when to give up versus when to keep on plugging - Pessimists still pursue a goal when it is not the smart thing to do Michael Scheier and Charles Carver - Optimism = Stable tendency to believe that good rather than bad things will happen - Valued goals produce an expectancy about attainment - Do not emphasize personal efficacy Childhood Antecedents - Genetic basis - Stems from experiences that foster trust and secure attachments to parental figures Optimism Measures - Life Orientation Test (LOT): includes both positive and negative expectancies - Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R): correlated with coping Optimism is related to: - Problem-solving - Planfulness - Approach-oriented coping - Positive reframing - Going to college - Good work performance - Coping with cancer Hope C.R. Snyder, University of Kansas - Hope = Emphasizes cognitions built on goal-directed thought - Pathway thinking- the perceived capacity to find routes to desired goals - Agency thinking- the requisite motivations to use those routes Goals in Hope Theory - Must be important to the person - Can vary temporally - May be approach oriented - May be preventative - Varying degrees of difficulty of attainment Childhood Antecedents of Hope - No hereditary component - Entirely learned - Pathway thinking and goal-setting - Inherent part of parenting; strong attachment is crucial for high hope - Components in place by age 2 - Childhood traumas lesson hope Neurobiology of Hope - Electrochemical connections that play a part in the immune system - Goal-direct actions are guided by opposing control processes o Behavioural inhibition system: punishment o Behavioural activation system: rewards o Behavioural facilitation system: drives incentive seeking actions Measures of Hope - Adult Trait Hope Scale: self-report, predicts pathways and agency - Adult State Hope Scale: here-and-now goal-directed thinking - Childrens Hope Scale Hope predicts: - Academic performance - Sport performance - Physical health - Adjustment - Psychotherapy outcomes Collective Hope - Collective hope = the level of goal-directed thinking of a large group of people - Often seen when a goal cannot be achieved by a single person Temporal Orientations - Advantages and disadvantages of all 3 temporal domains: past, present, future Past - Emphasis on previous relationships - If negative hold onto anxieties and depressive thoughts - Conservative - Traditions Present - Thrills, intensity, excitement - Savoring the moment - Dont consider consequences - Eastern: meditative appreciation of calmness Future - Goals and paths - Preventative behaviours - Excel in several domains - Miss out on the moment Role of cultural perspectives - Western: o Emphasize goal-directed actions o Linear- time is money - Eastern: o Interrelations o Suffering is human - Key = balance via operating in the domain that best fits the situation o Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory measures temporal orientation and showed that although people have accentuated the past, present, or future at given moments, they also are predisposed across situations to one of the orientations Chapter 9- Wisdom and Courage Wisdom and Courage
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