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Chapter 13

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PSYC 370
Monica Valsangkar- Smyth

Chapter 13- Hormones and Sex - Hormones influence sex in two ways: o Influencing the development from conception to sexual maturity of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioural characteristics that distinguish one as female or male o By activating the reproduction-related behaviour of sexually mature adults - Two types of glands: o Exocrine glands: glands that release chemicals into ducts that carry them to targets, mostly on the surface of the body o Endocrine glands: ductless glands that release chemicals called hormones directly into the circulatory system - Hormones: chemicals released by the endocrine system directly into the circulatory system - The gonads: the male testes and the female ovaries - Sex chromosomes determine the sex of an individual - Vertebrate hormones are of three different classes: o Amino acid derivative hormones: hormones that are synthesized in a few steps from amino acids o Peptide and protein hormones  Peptide hormones: hormones that are short chains of amino acids  Protein hormones: hormones that are long chains of amino acids o Steroid hormones: hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol - Steroid hormones influence sexual development and the activation of adult sexual behaviour - Steroid hormones are small and fat-soluble and can readily penetrate cell membranes and often affect cells from the inside by influencing gene expression - Steroid hormones tend to have the most diverse and long lasting effects on cellular function - Two main classes of gonadal hormones are androgens (testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol) - Third class of steroid hormone progestins; most common progestin is progesterone (prepares uterus and breasts for pregnancy; male function is unclear) - Adrenal conrtex releases small amounts of all sex steroids that are released by the gonads - Pituitary gland is the master glad because most of its hormones are tropic hormones (primary function is to influence the release of hormones from other glands - Example gonadotropin: the pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the gonads - Posterior pituitary: the part of the pituitary gland that contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons - Pituitary stalk: the structure connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland - Anterior pituitary: the part of the pituitary gland that releases tropic hormones - Menstrual cycle: the hormone-regulated cycle in women of follicle growth, egg release, buildup of the uterus lining, and menstruation - Male’s levels of gonadal and gonadotropic hormones change little from day to day - Hypothalamus is the regulator of the anterior pituitary - Vasopressin: one of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary; it facilitates reabsorption of water by kidneys and is thus also called antidiuretic hormone - Oxytoxin: one of the two major peptide hormones of the posterior pituitary which in females stimulates contractions of the uterus during labour and the ejection of milk during suckling - Paraventricular nuclei: hypothalamic nuclei that play a role in eating and synthesize hormones released by the posterior pituitary - Supraoptic nuclei: hypothalamic nuclei in which the hormones of the posterior pituitary are synthesized - Neurons that release hormones into general circulation are called neurosecretory cells - Hypothalamopituitary portal system: the vascular network that carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary o A network of hypothalamic capillaries feeds a bundle of portal veins that carries blood down the pituitary stalk into another network of capillaries in the anterior pituitary - Discovery that cutting the portal veins of the pituitary stalk disrupts the release of anterior pituitary hormones until the damaged veins regenerate - Hypothesis that the release of each anterior pituitary hormone is controlled by a different hypothalamic hormone - Releasing hormone: hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary - Release-inhibiting factors: hypothalamic hormones that inhibit the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary - Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: the hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the release of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary - Thyrotropin: the anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of hormones from the thyroid gland - Isolation of thyrotropin releasing hormone confirmed that hypothalamic releasing hormones control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary; provide the major impetus for the isolation and synthesis of several other releasing hormones - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: the hypothalamic releasing hormone that controls the release of the two gonadotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary o Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): the gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of ovarian follicles o Luteinizing hormone (LH): the gonadotropic hormone that causes the developing ovum to be released from its follicle - Endocrine glands (except anterior pituitary) are directly regulated by signals from the nervous system - Effects of experience on hormone release are usually mediated by signals from the nervous system - Hormones themselves also influence hormone release - Circulating hormones often provide feedback to the structures that influence their release; function of most hormonal feedback is the maintenance of stable blood levels of the hormones - Circulating chemicals other than hormones can play a role in regulating hormone levels o Glucose, calcium and sodium levels all influence the release of particular hormones - Pulsatile hormone release: the typical pattern of hormone release, which occurs in large surges several times a day o Causes large minute-to-minute fluctuations on the le
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