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PSYC370 Ch 17.pdf

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PSYC 370
Janet L Menard

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PSYC  370   Chapter  17   Biopsychology  of  emotion,  stress,  and  health     Biopsychology  of  emotion     Medial  prefrontal  lobes  –  emotion  and  planning.     Darwin’s  theory  of  emotional  evolution   -­‐ Emotions  evolve  from  expressions  that  indicate  what  an  animal  is   likely  to  do  next.     -­‐ Signals  that  benefit  the  animal  that  expresses  them  will  be  enhanced   -­‐ Principle  of  antithesis:  opposite  messages  are  expressed  by   opposite  movements  and  postures.   - Signals  of  aggression  and  submission  need  to  be  clearly   distinguishable  in  order  to  be  effective         James-­‐Lange  theory:  stimuli  that  induce   emotion  are  perceived  and  interpreted  in  the   cortex,  which  triggers  changes  in  the  visceral   organs  (ANS)  and  the  skeletal  muscles   (somatic  nervous  system).  It  is  the  autonomic   and  somatic  signals  then  that  allow  the  brain   to  interpret  that  it  is  experiencing  emotion.     -­‐ Essentially,  the  body’s  reaction  to  a   stimulus  causes  the  interpretation  of  an   emotion   -­‐ Experience  of  emotion  depends  on   feedback  from  ANS  and  somatic  NS     Cannon-­‐Bard  theory:  emotional  stimuli   simultaneously  excite  bodily  feelings   (autonomic  and  somatic)  of  emotion  and   cognitive  interpretation  of  an  emotion.  These   happen  in  parallel.   -­‐ Experience  of  emotion  is  independent   of  activity  in  the  ANS  and  somatic  nervous   system     Research  has  found  that  emotion  does  not   depend  on  autonomic  or  somatic  feedback.       The  experience  of  autonomic  and  somatic   feedback  alone  can  cause  an  emotional   PSYC  370   experience.  This  led  to  the  modern  biopsychological  view  that  all  three  aspects  (perception  of   stimuli,  physiological  reactions,  and  interpretation  of  the  emotion)  influence  one  another.     Decoricate  cats:  cortex  is  removed  from  the  cat.     -­‐ Overly  aggressive  –  severe  and  not  aimed  at  a  specific  target  (sham  rage)     Sham  rage:  aggression  that  is  disproportionately  severe  and  not  aimed  at  a  specific  target.   -­‐ Only  if  the  cortex  is  removed,  not  including  the  hypothalamus     Limbic  system:  series  of  interconnected  tracts  and  nuclei  bordering  on  the  thalamus;  thought  to   play  a  role  in  emotion.  Key  structures:  amygdala,  mammary  body,  hippocampus,  fornix,  cingulate   gyrus  (cortex),  septum,  olfactory  bulb,  and  hypothalamus.           Limbic  system  theory  of  emotion:  states  that  emotions  are  induced  by  the  actions  of  the   structures  in  the  limbic  system  acting  on  the  hypothalamus;  proposed  by  Papez.     Kluver-­‐Bucy  syndrome:  pattern  of  behaviours  that  occur  when  anterior  temporal  lobes  have   been  removed.  Behaviours  include:   -­‐ Consumption  of  almost  anything  edible   -­‐ Increased  sexual  activity  (often  directed  at  inappropriate  objects)   -­‐ Repeated  examination  of  familiar  objects   -­‐ Investigating  objects  in  the  mouth   -­‐ Lack  of  fear     Most  of  the  symptoms  are  associated  with  damage  to  the  amygdala.       PSYC  370   Emotions  and  the  autonomic  nervous  system.     Research  is  focused  on  the  degree  of  ANS  activation  in  corresponding  emotional  patterns,  and  ANS   activation  during  lying  (polygraphy).     James-­‐Lange  theory  total  specificity  –  emotions  are  dictated  by  ANS  arousal.   Cannon-­‐Bard  theory  total  generality  –  ANS  activation  is  relatively  the  same  for  all  emotions.     -­‐ The  answer  lies  somewhere  in  between     Evidence  that  not  all  emotions  are  characterized  by  the  same  pattern  of  ANS  activation,  but  there   is  not  enough  evidence  to  suggest  that  all  emotions  have  unique  ANS  activation  profiles.       Polygraphy:  method  of  interrogation  which  uses  ANS  activation  patterns  as  indicators  of   truthfulness  (versus  lies).  It  is  assumed  that  lying  will  accompany  greater  sympathetic  activation.     Control-­‐question  technique:  used  in  polygraphy  studies;  involves  asking  questions  with  known   answers  (“have  you  been  to  jail  before?”)  to  compare  to  the  target  question.     80%  success  rate  in  lab,  but  no  generalizable  to  real  world.  Why?   -­‐ Polygraphy  detects  emotions,  not  lies,  and  most  questions  in  a  crime  will  have  an  emotional   reaction  (making  it  hard  to  detect  a  lie)     Guilty-­‐knowledge  technique:  used  in  polygraphy  to  separate  emotional  reactions  from  lies;   involves  telling  the  suspect  a  detail  about  the  crime  that  only  the  guilty  party  would  know,  then   gauging  reaction.     Emotions  and  facial  expressions.     -­‐ Ekman     Primary  facial  emotions   -­‐ Happy   -­‐ Sad   -­‐ Surprise   -­‐ Fear   -­‐ Disgust   -­‐ Anger     Facial  feedback  hypothesis:  our  facial  expressions  influence  the  emotion  we  experience.     Experts  (people  like  Ekman)  can  distinguish  false  expressions  from  genuine  ones.   -­‐ Microexpressions:  expression  of  the  true  emotion  shines  through  the  false  expression  for   very  brief  moments   -­‐ Subtle  differences  between  genuine  and  false  expressions     PSYC  370   Features  of  genuine  smile:  see  figure     Duchenne  smile:  genuine  smile  characterized  by   contraction  of  the  orbicularis  oculi  muscle  and  the   zygomaticus  major  muscle.     The  orbicularis  oculi  muscle  only  contracts  in  response   to  genuine  happiness.                                     Fear,  defense,  and  aggression     Fear:  emotional  reaction  to  a  threat;  motivates  defensive  behaviours.     Defensive  behaviours:  protect  organism  from  threat  or  harm.     Aggressive  behaviours:  to  threaten  or  to  harm.     Colony-­‐intruder  model  of  aggression  and  defense:  model  of  aggression  and  defense  in  rats   created  by  Blanchard  and  Blanchard.  Describes  the  behaviours  of  an  alpha  male  and  an  intruding   rat  when  they  fight.     Cats  switch  between  attach  and  defense  when  hunting  mice.  When  cats  were  given  antianxiety   drugs  they  should  less  defensive  behaviours  and  became  more  efficient  at  killing.       Categories  of  rat  aggressive  and  defensive  behaviour  are  based  on  features  in  these  components:   1. Topography  (form)   2. Situations  that  elicit  them   3. Function     PSYC  370   Target-­‐site  concept:  animal  attacks  are  done  in  such  away  to  attack  specific  parts  of  the  other   animal  while  defending  specific  parts  on  oneself.     Rats  use  lateral  attacks  to  bite  the  other  rat’s  back  and  defensive  maneuvers  to  protect  the  face.         Septal  rage:  rats  became  extremely  aggressive  after  a  lesion  to  the  lateral  septum.  For  this  reason   it  was  once  believed  that  the  septum  inhibited  aggression.       The  organizational  and  activational  effects  of  testosterone  are  thought  to  drive  male   aggressive  tendencies.   -­‐ Castration  of  male  rats  eliminates  social  aggression   -­‐ Social  aggression  can  be  prompted  by  testosterone  injections  if  castration  occurs  after  birth             PSYC  370   Findings  on  testosterone  and  aggression   -­‐ Increases  social  aggression  in  males  of  many  species   -­‐ Social  aggression  abolished  with  castration   -­‐ Difficult  to  interpret  direction  of  influence:  acting  aggressively  causes  testosterone  release   -­‐ Most  studies  measure  testosterone  in  the  blood,  but
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