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Chapter 8

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PSYC 397

Chapter 8: The Psychology of Consciousness Page 229 -Wihelm Wundt – physicican-philosopher who establish psychology as academic discipline German University -University of Berlin – “state must replace with intellectual strength what it’s lost in material resources” -became model uni 4 germany & rest of world -b4 this, Uni aimed @ training 3 professionals: physicians, lawyers, clergy -only go to uni if wanna pursue ^ , not for career path but for entrance to “plite, educated society” -Humboldt – 2 aims for uni 1. Wissenchaft: any body of knowledge organized on definite principles -history, philosophy, physics, physiology 2. Bildung: a person’s self-formation thorugh broad, humanistic education -every part od edu contributes to pursuit of good, true & beautiful -Bildungsburgers- culturally educated citizens -Closest realization in any society of Plato’s utopian vision of guardians – specially educated Rulers of the Republic -tension bw these goals -Humboldt combine these into 3 goals of Uni 1. “deriving everything from an original principle” (goal of Wissen) 2. “relating everything to an ideal” (goal of philosophy) 3. “unifying this ideal & this principle in a single idea” (science serve justice 2 society & goal of phil) -Weltanschauung = single unified view of the world -teachers had to be highly trained in all areas from literature to physics -psych part of philosophy &pedagogy -since there was stress on scientific research – open 2 creation of new areas 4 scientific investigation -ministry of education didn’t really want psych to have it’s own division cuz it didn’t fit w. Bildung -physiology good 4 medicine which aims to cure -science like chem & phys = develop german industry German values: The Mandarin Bildunsburger -Mandarins who ruled Confucian China has been seen to parallel w. Bildungsburgers -deep education in Chinese culture, especially poetry -pride self in workin w. minds not hands -Bildunsburgers saw selves as educated elite based on deep education in german culture -the values of this mandarin elite shaped german psych – makin its ideas – though not its methods – unexportable -Tonnies makes distinction bw: Gemeinschaft (community) -everything Bildungsburgers loved & valued and Gesellschaft (society) -everything they feared & hated -Gem share common lang, culture & geography – much like poleis of ancient Greece -Ges just isolated ppl w.out ties other than citenship -new cities like Berlin -Bildunsburgers rejected Newtonian science cause it made the universe appear just a machine -gave rise to industrialism that replaces humans w. machines & factories -machines & societies composed of isolated aprts can fall apart -Bildung education for livin in true community -germany was just made up of lil bundles of living – they wanted to start learnin bout german culture to gain unification -had war which brought unity but not unity Bildungburgers longer 4 -Bildungers not mandarins in Chinese sense cuz they didn’t rule Germany as they’d hoped 2 -Ernst Troeltsch -voiced enthusiasm he & his fellow Mandarin academics felt on outbreak of war -brought national unity & greek-like service of the state the mandarins longed 4 -“moral elevation of the ppl preceeded war; whole nation gripped by the truth & reality of a suprapersonal, spiritual power” -germans despised American & English cuz they were Gesellschaft -Wundt & other German intellects say they were traders -American highest value = personal comfort -german – sacrifice & service to a greater whole -German psych shaped by Bildungsburger values -Wundt found psych as science w.in phil, but as went on – placed limits on what psych could do as natural science -set human achievements (culture & lang.) (key aspects of Gemeinschaft) outside of experimental psych -consciousness make him torn – seem more compatible w. science – but wanna share holistic vision of universe w. Mandarins -consiouness composed of elements, but unifed in larger wholes by human will Wilhelm Wundt’s Psychology of Consciousness Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) -took already established path through physiology -accepted Cartesian-Lockean wasy of Ideas as basis 4 makin psych a science -msthodological & social vs. theoretical -1 academically recognized lab in psych -born into intellectual Mandarin elite -wrote “Volkerpsychologie” -study if individual in society as opposed to ind. In the lab Making Psych a Science: The Path Through Physiology Principles of Physiological Psychology -alliance bw 2 sciences -physiology – informs us bout those life phenomena that we perceive by ex
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