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Criminology Book Notes.docx

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Queen's University
SOCY 480
Stephen Baron

Less Law, More Order Introduction | Truth and Sense, Not Giuliani • Life better, crime persistent -> 24 million victimizations in 2005 alone • Tough on criminals costs $225 billion in USA (costs of police, corrections, judicial and legal services) –> one in five prisoners in world are in USA; too much crime for too large of an expenditure • KEY POINT: need to care MORE about victims and victimization and LESS about punishment if they want to reduce crime and violence and increase getting elected -> Populist (current) policies deliver little in terms of crime reduction at high price -> must be more cost-effective • Majority believe that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure; need to be proactive rather than reactive thus tailor more spending towards educating youth rather than on police, prisons, and judges • International Crime Prevention Centre (ICPC) in the mid-90s used data from successful crime prevention programs employed around the world to develop the “key ingredients for crime prevention” and frameworks for cities in North America • Conclusion: limiting our response to the “standard” use of police, courts, and corrections is NOT the way to prevent and reduce crimes; stats have backed this up since the 1970s • Invest less in the “standard” system (reactionary) and more in focused prevention (solve the risk factors that create crime) will create greater order in society • Need for popular book to empower voters and policy makers – Make criminological conclusions accessible – Spell out policy implications Chapter 1 | Tough On Crime, Tough On Us  Crime is tough on many…  Crime is still real risk to victims – up a lot then down a fair bit  Tough on victims o Victims often abandon CJS o Victimizing victims and more  Tough on taxpayers o More police, more courts and much more prisons  Even with crime down, it costs us all o Tough to get results o Tough on causes is tougher on crime Chapter 1 | Crime, Criminals, and Criminology What is Criminology?  Criminology: the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon o Includes processes of making laws, breaking laws, and reaction to breaking of the laws o Criminologists take the scientific approach to the study of crime Why Should We Study Crime?  Three reasons: o Learning about crime will tell us a lot about our society o Before we can reduce crime, we need to understand it o Crime directly or indirectly affects all of us Crime and the Media  Media misrepresents crime solely to attract more viewers and make a larger profit; emphasis on reporting violent crimes rather than those involving property, politics, white-collar; in reality, most crimes are property related yet violent crimes are over-reported in the media  Media distorts perception of the justice system; “CSI effect”: jurors believe that DNA evidence should be more conclusive than what is realistically possible  Showing more violent crimes and featuring them more often as headliners causes mass hysteria and public fear of victimization -> causes society to: o favour “tough on crime” tactics (ex: throw MORE people in jail rather than PREVENT the crime from happening) o exaggerate the amount of crimes that are actually taking place o have a distorted stereotype of the offenders  media exposure can influence people who are already vulnerable or predisposed to violence to commit violent crimes; media exposure of violence does have some effect/influence on people to commit violent crimes The Discipline of Criminology  the discipline of criminology includes six major areas: 1. The Definition of Crime and Criminals  Must specify what kind of acts qualify as crimes  What circumstances label a person a criminal 2. The Origins and Role of the Law  Important to understand the origins and the role law has on society 3. The Social Distribution of Crime  Develop understanding of the kinds of people that commit crimes, trends in the occurrence of crime, crime rates, crime types etc. 4. The Causation of Crime  Why do some people commit crimes while others are law-abiding? 5. Patterns of Criminal Behaviour  Understand and analyze the patterns of crimes (victims, criminals etc) 6. Societal Reactions to Crime  How should society deal with criminals? A Violent Crime: The Sand Brothers  Robert and Danny sand lived in a small community in Alberta; they spent most of their childhood in trouble  Both lacked serious adult figures as their parents didn’t live at home and they dropped out of school early; their closest friends were their family and role models, and they would do anything to protect one another; they carried this band of brothers mentality when it came to committing crimes -> it was their group versus the world (police officers, property owners, car owners etc)  The brothers committed several robberies, car thefts, assaults -> 1998 Robert was sentenced to 7 years in prison for his role in multiple armed robberies; Danny was sent to prison for assaulting a police officer  Both were released to a halfway house and violated their conditions by fleeing to Manitoba; while there they went on a crime spree but police only took notice of them when they ran through a stop sign; police cruiser pursued the brothers until the brothers fired shots at the police cruiser; escalated to the brothers ramming into the cruiser and firing shots and ultimately killing one of the RCMP officers Constable Strongquill  KEY POINTS: criminologists consider many theories to explain crime and focus on many disciplines  These disciplines include:  Biology -> inherited traits that influence criminal activity?  Psychological -> did mental conditions cause criminal behaviour?  Sociology -> what role did family and friends play on the behaviour of the criminals? Did racism or any societal stereotypes play a role? Etc • Problem is that each case is different and presents its own unique reasoning as to why the criminal activity occurred and the patterns of criminal behaviour A White Collar Crime: The Downfall of Conrad Black  History of fraudulent activity while in high-school and was expelled; relentless cost-cutting procedures in all of the media companies he has owned (started with the Sherbrooke Record); eventually owned around 100 of the most popular newspapers in the world under the corporation called Hollinger International  Investors challenged HI when they failed to get their dividends while the top managers were getting much wealthier; resulted in an investigation which revealed that $400 million which should have gone to shareholders went to the top executives of HI  HOW: o when selling off certain papers HI agreed to competition agreements from the buyer that they would not compete in those markets; the money generated from these non-compete clauses (often worth millions of dollars) went straight to the executives rather than to HI o used HI money to finance personal events and to satisfy personal needs  Conrad Black and three other executives faced multiple criminal charges; Black was charged with obstruction of justice and fraud -> July 2007 he was convicted on 4 charges and acquitted on 9 others, sentenced to 6.5 years in prison and ordered to pay restitution of $6.1 million -> spent 5.5 years in jail and was released in May 2012 Chapter 8 | Early Theories of Criminology  Societal beliefs relating crime to superstition and sin were slowly replaced by the idea that people are free and rational human beings -> consistent with the realization of individual rights and freedoms  “let the punishment fit the crime” and belief in people’s ability to reason ->two core principles of Classical School of Criminology Brief History (257-262) th  Pre-18 Century: o theories of crime were inspired by religion in superstition  Ex: bad behaviour is due to a person being possessed by an evil spirit or the devil o Jeudo-Christian beliefs of the role of evil spirits in sinful behaviour: temptation and possession  Middle Ages: o belief in the power of supernatural forces reached its highest point during the “witch hunt’ otherwise known as the “Inquisition” period; tremendous social change occurred from feudalism (agriculture based) to capitalism; o those with power were being blamed for the deteriorating situation in Europe, so the elite had to find a way of diverting attention -> those with authority used mainly economically independent women as scapegoats to remain in power and create fear amongst peasants by dubbing many of them witches; this also kept the males in power; millions were executed  Enlightenment (262): o along with the economic revolution came big changes in society ->the “age of reason” emerged which advocated naturalistic explanations of the world based on people’s ability to reason o led to the establishment of individual human rights which challenged the previously assumed collectivist beliefs of feudalism The Classical School (262-267)  considered to be the first school of criminology; associated w/ authors: Beccaria, Bentham, Romily; brought liberalism and utilitarianism to the justice system  1764 -> Cesare Beccaria published “An Essay on Crimes and Punishments” -> provided the focus for humanitarian reform by criticizing the inhumanity of the current justice system th  “Criminal law in the 18 century in Europe was… repressive, uncertain, and barbaric.” -> torture is routine and the punishments for crime were inhumane and often resulted in death; abuses in the administration of law were ridiculously common th o Ex: 350 offences were punishable by death in the 18 century  People were clamouring for reform before the book was published; Beccaria’s book served as a catalyst for the movement The Classical Theory of Crime (263-265)  Began in the enlightenment period and reflects the “naturalistic” beliefs  Social contract theory -> presented a new way of looking at the relationship between people and the state o Giving up some freedom to the state guaranteed the citizen his right to live in security  Explanation of crime: people break the law in pursuit of advancing their own self-interests  Dealing with crime: create a system of punishments that will deter people away from committing the crimes -> good criminal code will make the large majority would choose to be good over evil -> unfair punishment will be met with civil backlash and even more heinous crimes  Beccaria wanted to: o Abolish torture for petty crimes o Reduce the amount of power judges have (separate law-making powers and judicial powers) o Equality and the establishment of due-process safeguards -> punishment should fit the crime and should not be dependent on the status of the accused (peasant vs royal) Assessing the Contributions of the Classical School The Classical School and Legal Reform  The ideals of social contract theorists were translated into progressive criminal justice policy as promoted by the classical school  The excess and injustices in the system were attacked and the foundations for our modern criminal justice system was created  Due process safeguards, guarantee of individual rights, equality before the law, separation of judicial and legislative responsibilities, establishment of fixed penalties etc. are VITAL to our modern cjs Limitations of the Classical School  Degree of punishment must be proportionate to the degree of harm posed to society -> very subjective, unrealistic to apply on a society as a whole  Deterrence: (criminal justice) crime prevention achieved through the fear of punishment The Statistical School: Social Structure and Crime (267-268)  Associated w/ social scientists: Quetelet and Guerry; exploring the structure of a certain society based on statistics; developed structural explanation for crime and other social problems  Analyzed the statistics available to find a relationship between the information and the crime  Addressed many issues relating to criminal careers, delinquent subcultures, and social learning theory  Most significant contribution: uncovering that all levels of society have crime and that the rate of crime is mostly constant year after year and varies little over time  “the crimes committed seem to be a necessary result of our social organization… the society prepares the crime, and the instruments are the instruments by which it is executed” Positive School | Lombroso and the Positive School (268-  First scientific school; consisted of mainly Italian criminologists: Lombroso, Garofalo, Enrico Ferri; supported the assumptions of positivism and argues that criminality is determined (the effect and cause or the effect sequence)  Lombroso was influenced by Charles Darwin; brought the methods of controlled observations to the study of criminals -> comparing criminals to non-criminals to isolate factors that caused criminality  Main ideas of Darwin found their way into the theories of the Positive school: “survival of the fittest” and “the struggle for survival”  identifying criminals -> searching for those physical and moral traits that differentiated more developed human beings from those who were less advanced in evolutionary terms  dealing with criminals became a matter of incapacitating them since they were believed to be genetically predisposed to cause crime -> eugenics: sterilization and sometimes execution of those deemed to be of inferior status  atavism: some criminals were born criminals; being criminal is a part of their anatomy and is their destiny so it is impossible to shake it; suggested they were “throwbacks” to an earlier stage of evolution and that they were morally inferior; could be identified physically -> essentially they are SAVAGES in a CIVILIZED society  stigmata: physical signs of some special moral position; Lombroso used term to describe people of inferior evolution (atavism)  Lombroso concluded that different types of offenders were characterized by different physiological features;  Postulated that there was many types of offenders: o Born criminals o Occasional criminals o Epileptics -> medical condition and atavism of criminals o Criminal Insane -> deteriorating mental state causes criminal behaviour o Criminals of Passion -> influenced by an external factor (love, politics) to commit crime o Criminaloids -> all of the other criminals left over Contribution of the Positive School  Lombroso’s theory on criminal anthropology has not stood the test of time; his research was poor and sloppy; many of the stigmatas (like tattooing) could not possibly have been inherited  Classical theorists -> punishment should fit the crime  Positive theorists -> punishments should fit the criminal Biological Theories in the Early 20 Century Crime and Physical Characteristics  Research was done by Goring that disproved Lombroso’s theory -> there is no distinct physical type of criminal o Also found a high correlation between criminal activity and low intelligence o Persons sampled were not representative of the whole of society; only represented convicted criminals  Hooton continued this research by studying more than 13000 criminals and non-criinals; determined that “criminals as a group represent an aggregate of sociologically and biologically inferior individuals” o Lots of criticisms were applied as to the reliability of the information collected as it could seldom be repeated Crime and Intelligence  Crime has been wrongfully linked to those will low intelligence in many points in history; many tests were conducted using intelligence test such as the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test (which in itself is a flawed attempt at measuring such an objective element of humans, intelligence); for years the correlation between low intelligence and crime was used in the courts and in society and many provinces in Canada even passed sterilization laws and forced many with “feeble” intelligence to be institutionalized; the IQ tests are highly subjective and are heavily biased to a certain culture  The evidence supporting a link b/w pathology and criminal behaviour is very weak Early theories of crime are summarized in Table 8.1 on page 279 Chapter 4 | Counting Crime -> Summary p.129 How do Social Scientists Count Crime?  Must take validity and reliability of the measures into account; do crime statistics accurately measure the amount of crimes that actually take place in Canada or does it just indicate the work of our Criminal Justice System? Controversies over Counting Crime  Methodology: refers to the study or critique of methods  Reliability: measures the consistency of results over time  Validity: the extent to which the tool actually measures the concept  Crime Rate: (aka rates of incarceration or conviction) dividing the amount of crime by the population size and multiplying by 100,000  First concern is coverage: how can we obtain data about the amount and nature of crime in Canada?  Most important concerns are validity and reliability -> the crime rate measure becomes increasingly less valid as you move down the criminal justice system as Figure 4.1 on p.103 demonstrates  There are built-in biases since some crimes are more likely to be reported and more likely to result in an arrest, conviction, incarceration than others -> the measures we currently use are more indicative of how the criminal justice system works rather than actual crime stats  Population: all members of a given class or set (ex: inmates at prisons); may provide indicators of how society responds to crime rather than the nature and amount of crime  Early criminology theories were based on uncritical acceptance of official sources of statistics; many of these stats were gathered to provide a comparison between inmates, soldier, and non-criminals o These early theories have been tested recently an revealed much about the influence of the previous justice system on actual crime o Revealed more about the police, the courts, and about whom they selected for their worst punishments  Theory: set of concepts and their nominal definition or assertion of certain relationships between concepts, assumptions, and knowledge claims  Stats are often used to convey peoples own ideological ends (especially in politics) in a world where stats provide very convincing arguments -> stats can be dangerous if we do not know how to consider them critically (must ALWAYS question the numbers that are given!!) How Much Crime?  Dark figure of crime: the amount of crime that is unreported or is unknown  Criminologists have tackled this problem by looking at emerging and past trends and by becoming less dependent on official counts of crime Official Statistics: Canadian Uniform Crime Reports  We still rely heavily on the official counts of crime; for five decades Canada had a system of uniform, comparable, and national statistics called the Canadian Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)  UCR is based on the United States system but it is an improvement on it  There are multiple versions of the UCR: UCR 1.0 (1970s), UCR 2.0 and UCR 2.1 (1980s), UCR 2.2 (2004)  Seriousness rule: if there are several crimes in one incident, only the most serious crime is counted  It is not entirely clear what kinds of crimes we count and when we should count them; Canada’s crimes include violations from the criminal code, federal and provincial statutes and municipal by- laws -> gross counts of crime (total amount of crime in a given region w/ no distinction b/w crime categories) can be very misleading o Ex: 1969 Canada -> crime increased 2500% between 1901-1965 (gross count) when in fact the rise was due to a 98% increase in summary offences (non-serious crimes) -> this increase in crime had to do with the increase in the usage of automobiles (not an increase in violent crimes as per what the public would perceive) o This is why UCR measures crime in categories and not just in general  Under UCR: o if several property crimes occur in one incident (even against multiple people) then it is only counted as one crime o If personal crime all incidents are recorded, however with the most serious offence scoring rule, less-serious crimes are under-counted by the UCR (allows up to 4 violations per incident)  Police respondent rate for UCR is 100%; UCR2 serves as a rich source for info for the nation; UCR aggregate survey is maintained by converting incident based data to aggregate counts at year end  Can the UCR accurately count crime and be an indicator of crime trends? Do official statistics even tell us what is actually happening with crime? o Off. Crime stats are shaped by: common sense and legal definition o UCR -> criminal justice statistic (it describes police activity more than it does crime) o Crime statistics are the product of individual police decisions/ is an exercise of police discretion about what crimes are serious enough to attend to, record, and pursue; crime stats are also shaped by public perceptions, concerns, fears as they rely on accounts of victims and witnesses  TRENDS: (fig. 4.4 p.114)Since the inception of the UCR in 1962, total criminal code offence rate tripled from 2771 per 100,000 to 7224 per 100,000 in 2009; violent and property crimes increased until 1992; violent crimes have been consistently lower than property crimes -> crime has been declining since 1991  Crime rates: crime stats take into account population of Canada; normally done per 100,000 citizens Focus: UCR Categories and the Most Serious Offence Rule  Various UCR categories o Violent incidents -> offences that deal with the threat or application of force to a person  Forms of sexual assault, assault, robbery, abduction o Property incidents -> offences with the intent of gaining property and do not involve force  Ex: theft, breaking and enter, fraud, possession of stolen goods o Other criminal code incidents  Involve the rest of criminal offences not classified as property or violent incidents o Total criminal code incidents  Tabulation of all violent, property and other criminal code incidents  Most serious offence: ranked offences based on the penalty as described in the criminal code; UCR survey is equal to the number of victims of violent crimes (other than robbery) plus the separate number of separate occurrences of non-violent crimes  Actual incidents: when a crime is reported to the police, the incident is recorded as a “reported incident” -> police then conduct an investigation into the validity of the report Crime Severity Index (CSI)  addresses the problem of increasing crime rate driven by high volume of less serious offences o assigns each offence with a weighting based on actual sentencing of those crimes o Fig. 4.6 p.115 and table 4.1 p.116 -> CSI decreased by 23% from 2000-2010 o **all of data is based on reports to the police  How much does police recording practices influence UCR figures? o If offence is made a high priority by police, figures are more likely to be accurate -> people are also more likely to report a high priority crime o Since these priorities change over time and reflect the changing views of society, this skewer any trends over long periods of time gathered through UCR data o UCR is controversial in its validity in reflecting crime trends; other attempts at counting crime include the victimization survey…. Victimization Survey  Victimization Survey: survey of a random sample of population in which people are asked to recall and describe their experiences of being a crime victim (self-reported victimizations); it asks: o What was the nature and consequences of victimization experiences? o What was the Criminal justice response? Was it sufficient? o Did victim bring incidents to official attention (if no, why not?)?  helps to indicate the public’s perceptions and attitudes towards crime and criminal justice in Canada  Sample: group of people selected in a systematic manner from a population of interest  Statistics Canada carries out the victimization survey every 5 years since 1988; first ever was done in 1982; 2009 survey -> 19500 people over 15 were surveyed  Serious incidents are not likely to be self-reported in the survey o 92% of those sexually assaulted don’t report it o Most Canadians feel like it is their duty to report a violent crime that happened to them o Fig. 4.7 p.120 -> reasons for not reporting victimization incidents to police; BIG FOUR were:  Not important enough  Police couldn’t do anything about it  Dealt with it another way  Incident was a personal matter  Model for victimization: young, single, male, not employed full-time, living an active social life  Victimization surveys do not account for all crimes; depends on the subjects ability to recall details of their incidents like the exact place and time -> the more well-educated, the more detailed the report is likely to be Focus: Criminal Victimization in Canada | 2009 Highlights  Around 25% Canadians (15+) reported being a victim of a crime in the past 12 months (similar to data collected in 2004)  1/3 Canadians actually reported their incident to the police -> most likely to be reported was break- ins and motor vehicle theft  7/10 reported crimes were non-violent; theft of personal property most commonly reported offence  b/w 2004-2009 -> everything remained stable (assault, robbery, sexual assault) except for break-ins (increased 21%) and motor vehicle theft (decreased 23%)  Western Canada has higher rates of self-reported violent and household victimization  Young Canadians reported higher rates of violent victimization than older Canadians (15-24 vs 65+)  93% of Canadians felt satisfied with their personal safety from crime Self-Report Studies  Another way to generate crime data just like UCR and Victimization Survey; Like victimization surveys, self-report studies are made to overcome weaknesses of police data  Asks criminals what they do and how often they do it -> surveys from the criminals perspective as they’re believed to be the ones that know the most about crime  Self-report studies: distribution of a detailed questionnaire to a sample of people asking them whether they have committed a crime in a particular period of time o Great method for determining the social characteristics of offenders  Hirschi: conducted a large self-report study on high school students; compared the data gained from the questionnaires with other forms of data to better understand why some kids are delinquent and others are not  SRS have showed that the social class of subjects effects the persons willingness to disclose their criminal activity (ex: lower-class males are less likely to disclose everything compared to middle- class males)  PROBLEMS: people who don’t break the law are more likely to be respondent in the studies than people who have broken the law; is very difficult to get “hardcore” criminals to answer the survey; more likely to under-count serious crimes and focus on recording less serious crimes Focus: Violence Among Diverse Populations  2004 GSS -> allows criminologists to observe crime rates within visible minorities, recent immigrants, Aboriginal people  Aboriginals are more than 3x as likely to be a victim of a crime (especially aboriginal women)  Immigrants have around the same and less victimization rate than non-immigrants Focus: Summary and Cautions Victimization Survey  When using data from UCR and victimization survey it is important to consider the following: o VS include only 8 offences; UCR includes over 100 o Use caution ex: 2009 VS says there are 630,000 B&Es. However this only includes household B&Es not with businesses therefore thousands of B&Es are excluded Defining Courts-Based Data and Police Incident-Based Data  The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics conducts the UCR survey -> collect data on the crimes reported to police  Basic unit of count: criminal incident -> may involve several persons (several victims or accused) and several infractions of the law -> may be grouped into one incident if it meets certain grouping standards Most Serious Offence and Scoring Rules  Violent crimes are recorded per victim whereas non-violent crimes are recorded per distinct or separate occurrence Courts  Adult Criminal Court Survey (ACCS) -> national database on the processing of cases through the adult and youth criminal justice system -> has widespread coverage of both youth and adults Most Serious Offence and Decision Rules  If case has more than one charge, most serious crime will be chosen to represent the case; seriousness is based on the crime itself, the sentence handed out, the location/ type of sentence, magnitude of sentence etc Comparisons b/w Courts and Police UCR Survey Data  UCR and ACCS surveys cannot be accurately compared to each other since their measures of gaining the data are different Focus: “If it Bleeds, It Leads” | Media And Public Perceptions of Crime  Primary source for information about crimes for most Canadians is the media; the media constructs the news stories in a certain way and thus the public perception can be biased to what is actually happening in reality o Ex: media tends to report violent crimes more often than property crimes even though property crimes occur more often -> clearly the media wants to have something sensational to make the best news story possible rather than cover actual crime trends; creates a greater amount of fear in Canadian as they believe that violent crime rates are increasing (when in fact they are not)  Media misrepresents crime in order to attract more readers and increase demand which then causes more companies to want to advertise in the paper ->media also portrays plays stereotypes of offenders (ex: violent crimes are most likely to occur by someone close to you rather than some random horrifying stranger as the media portrays Chapter 7 |Victimology, Victim Services, and Victim Rights in Canada  Traditional system of law enforcement -> catching, convicting, fining, imprisoning Focus: A Snapshot of victimization in Canada  In a Canadian city of 1,000,000 annually: o $2.5 billion in victim costs in pain and suffering o 60,000 victims of assault, 16,000 sexual assault, 18,000 thefts of motor vehicles o Fewer than 1 in 3 will report victimization to police; less than 3% of offenders will be convicted; victims who do not cooperate as witnesses may be arrested o Police services alone cost $400 million out of local taxes (not including judicial or correctional services!) yet only $10 million will go to victim compensation Prevalence, Impact, and Needs of Victimization  Two main flaws in police gathered data o Many victims do not report crime to police o Many reported crimes are not recorded by police  Victimization Surveys try to figure out the amount of victimizations not reported to the police; undertaken annually in many developed countries other than Canada (done every 5 years) o 25% of Canadians are victimized by some form of assault, theft, or sexual assault o Victimization rate has not changed a lot over the last 15 years o Young people aged 15-24 are much more likely to be victimized than those 65+  Victimization Survey includes the following 7 offences and trends (all as of 2009): o Assault, Sexual Assault, Robbery rates are slowly increasing o B&E, Motor Vehicle Theft, Vandalism, Theft of Household Property peaked in 2004 and is not declining  Repeat Victimization: a person being a victim of a crime more than once o Surveys show that victimization is kept within certain families and communities; 40% who said they were victimized on a VS said they were a victim of at least 2 crimes Impact of Victimization  Crime causes financial loss, injury, and emotional pain and trauma in victims  Harm to victims: the direct impact of crime on victim includes harm, such as loss, injury, pain, and emotional trauma; can be increased by experience with police, courts, corrections, and others o Cost of harm to victims in 2008 -> $83 billion (the intangible costs outweighed the tangible costs by over 4x) Needs of Crime Victims  Rights of crime victims: various fundamental principles of justice and rights for victims of crime and is recognized internationally; consists of 8 core rights: 1) Right to Recognition o victims require the respect as human beings 2) Right to Information o Must know/ be informed of their rights, the judicial process etc 3) Right to Assistance o Must be informed of/ have access to all services 4) Right to Reparation o Right to restitution from offender or compensation from the state 5) Right to be Protected from the Accused o State must protect victim from further harm by offender 6) Right to Participation and Representation o Victims must be able to participate and be represented in proceedings 7) Right to Effective Policies to Reduce Victimization o Gov’ts must be doing their best to prevent crimes from happening and make sure if isn’t repeated by the same offender 8) Right to Implementation Chapter 4 | Counting Crime Statistics on the Criminal Justice System  Records are different from statistics o records are a collection of information about individual cases o statistics are aggregated and are concerned with what is common in individual cases  Issues that must be addressed before converting records into statistics: o Unit of count  Consensus about what it is that we are counting; ex: prison sector will count inmates; court sector, convictions; police, suspects o Level of aggregation  How data can be combined -> do we want city-level, provincial or national data? The level is normally dictated by the reach of the program that is being developed o Definitions  How to define what is being counted; ex: Criminal Code defines what constitutes a crime, who an inmate is, and how to count crime o Data element  What specific information needs to be collected o Counting procedure  Consensus on how to count units and data elements; ex: how to count several offences/ incidents at one time Chapter 5 | Correlates of Criminal Behaviour  Correlate: any variable that is related to another variable (relationship b/w two variables); age and sex are the two strongest correlates of crime  Which Canadians commit crimes? This is the main question for the chapter o What factors are shown to correlate with crime?  Ex: persons build and crime -> the bigger you are the more likely you are to commit a crime; city size and crime -> the bigger the city the more crime  Why a correlate relationship b/w two variables” o Causation -> a change in one variable causes a change in another variable o Theory -> what are the reasons for the links b/w two variables  Main Correlations: o Age o Gender o Race o Drug Abuse/Misuse o Social Class o Religion Age Peak Ages for Crime  Early adolescence to young adulthood -> peak ages for crime o Ex: 2009 -> 18-24 made up for 12% of adult population, accounted for 31% of all crimes o Youth trend is especially correlative to property crimes (fig 5.1 p.136) o Different crimes peak at different ages  **However it is important to remember that some of the data may be skewed due to the increased population of youth or older people  Surveys done in Canada have found a reliable correlation between Canadians aged 15-24 and crime -> the larger the population of that specific age group, the higher the crime rate in Canada o However some surveys show that it is not the crime rate affected by this prime age group but the amounts of B&Es… Maturational Reform  Maturational reform: the observation that involvement in crime tends to decrease as people age  The social and industrial position of youth has been said to have contributed to maturational reform  Many social scientists link the tension involved in the adolescent stage to the increase in crime at that age where the youth are: “excluded from adult roles…. And experience emancipation from the constraints and demands of childhood and are encouraged to aspire to adult status” and there is a lot more peer pressure to fit in  As adolescents get settled and integrate more into society, they have more to lose and crime doesn’t have the same effect on changing their social status as it once did  Adolescents don’t have a legitimate source of income and are very dependent on peers; both of these things go away with age and thus decreases the crime rate Sex Sex Differences and Crime Trends  Crime rates for men greatly exceed crime rates for women; 77% of crimes involves an accused male, 17% involve a female accused (sex was not reported for the other 6%)  Offences which have the highest male involvement:
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