SPAN247 - Chapter 6

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Queen's University
Spanish Language and Literature
SPAN 247
Peter Thompson

Chapter 6 Ecstasy and AgonySan Lorenzo del Escorial El Escorialroyal crypt library collection of human body parts Symbol of counterreformation Built by Felipe means slag heap Design based on martyrs death roasted alive on grill Metaphor of empire control of the minutest detail Has many religious relics paintings booksFelipe married Mary Tudor inherited fathers hostility to France Marriage was part of basic Habsburg policy to encircle France Everyone but English considered him English king Disliked his Catholicism even though he restrained Marys persecutionsHuge debt from Carloss reign Even all the resources from the new world used to pay off debts not invested in economyFelipe didnt allow for Renaissance and Reformation ideas to take root in Spain Ban on foreign books and Spanish students traveling abroad Missionary objectives in Indies many parallels between conquering Mexico and the Moors Conquistador cruelty used to intimidate population however Spanish judged to behistorys most humane Black Legendhistoricalliterary tradition ofsmearing all Spanish things as evil inferior cruel Black legend planted during debates over Indian treatment by Bartolom de las Casas first priest in New Worldunsupported claims Felipe was very introverted emotionless disliked strong personalities First marriage to Mara had been happy she died in childbirth Mary Tudorpolitical reasons Felipe tried to micromanage a lot had a statue with moveable limbs for addressing crowds unworthy of his presence Used Inquisition to increase power over bishops and regions Process1 arrest based on denuncia from two people 2assumed guilt try to obtain confession 3torture resorted to for confession1561 capital moved from Toledo to Madrid Geographic centre could be moulded to Felipes tastes Spain mostly rural population of 9 million in total Largest Sevilla Valladolid Granada Toledo BarcelonaDon Carlos Felipes heir was product of two cousins married and grandson of Juana loca Very erratic uncontrollable cruel behaviour Locked in a fortress died there Granadan Morisco revolt met with Spanish crackdown fear of them joining with Muslims from Barbary Coast across the sea Heightened the type of evidence people could prosecute others with heresy were Hebrew names cooking with oil etc One had to be an OLD Christian Turkey reached height of power under Suleiman the Magnificent victory at Djerba in 1560 Failed to take Malta Suleiman died next year his son was bad at managing army Battle of Lepanto off of Greek coast SpanishItalians had 208 warships Turks had 230 Resounding Christian victoryDon Juan of Austria halfbrother of Felipe proposed going on to Constantinople and North Africa but Felipe refused Felipe didnt follow up because the Lower Provinces BeNeLux were no longer his due to fathers death and he felt he
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