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Chapter 1

BLG 10A/B Fall Week 1 Notes - Chapter 1 and 2

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Tonya Davidson

Ch1: The Human Body: An Orientation An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. It is concrete. Physiology concerns the function of the body and how the body parts work and carry out activities. Topics of Anatomy - Gross or macroscopic anatomy is the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye - In Regional anatomy, all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc) in a particular region of the body are examined at the same time - In Systemic Anatomy, body structure is studied system by system. o Eg. When studying cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body - Surface anatomy is the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface o Bulging muscles beneath a bodybuilder’s skin. Feel pulses, and draw blood. - Microscopic anatomy deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye o Cytology – cells of the body o Histology - study of tissues - Developmental anatomy traces structural changes that occur in body throughout the life span o Embryology – developmental changes that occur before birth - Palpation (feeling organs with your hands) and auscultation (listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope). Topics of Physiology - Renal physiology – kidney function and urine production - Neurophysiology explains workings of the nervous sytem - Cardiovascular physiology examines operation of the heart and blood vessels - Physiology focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level. Body’s abilities depend on individual cells and cell’s abilities depend on the chemical reactions within them - Also rests of principles of physics (electric currents, BP, etc) Complementarity of Structure and Function - Anatomy and physiology are inseperable because functions always reflects structure - Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function o Bones support and protect organs because they contain hard mineral deposits o Blood flows in one direction b/c the heart has valves that prevent backflow Levels of Structural Organization - Chemical Level is the simplest level of structural hierarchy o Atoms  molecules  organelles  cells - Tissue Level o Groups of cells with similar function o Epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue o Epithelium covers body surface and lines its cavities. Muscle provides movement. Connective tissue supports and protects organs. Nervous tissue provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses. - Organ – composed of at least two tissue types (4 is common) that performs a specific function o Extremely complex functions become possible o Ex. Stomach: lining is an epithelium that produces digestive tissues. The bulk of its wall is muscle, which churns and mixes stomach content. Its connective tissue reinformces the soft muscular walls. Its nerve fibers increase digestive activity by stimulating muscle to contract more vigorously and the glands to secrete more digestive juices - Organ System – organs work together to accomplish a common purpose (11 organ systems) - Organismal Level – sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions - All body cells are interdependent due to the fact that humans are multicellular organisms and our vital body functions are parceled out among different organ systems Maintaining Boundaries - Every living organism must maintain its boundaries so its internal environment remains distinct from its external environment - All cells of our body are surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane - Body enclosed and protected by integumentary system – prevents organs from drying out Movement - Activities promoted by the muscular system such as propelling ourselves from one place to another - Also occurs when substances (blood, food, urine) are propelled through organs of the cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems - On the cellular level, muscular cells ability to move by shortening is called contractility Responsiveness (irritability) - Ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond - Because nerve cells are highly irritable and communicate rapidly with each other via electrical impulses, the nervous system is most involved with responsiveness Digestion - Breaking down of ingested food to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood - Multicellular human body the digestive system performs this function for the entire body Metabolism - Includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells - Catabolism: breaking down substances into simpler forms - Anabolism: synthesizing complex structures from simpler substances - Cellular respiration: using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP - Depends on digestive and respiratory system to make nutrients and oxygen available to the blood, and the cardiovascular system to distribute them throughout the body - Metabolism is regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands Excretion - Process of removing wastes from the body - Several organ systems participate in extretion o Digestive system rids body of indigestible food, and urinary system disposes of urea o CO2 leaves body Reproduction - Occurs at the cellular and organismal level - Cellular Reproduction: original cells divides producting 2 identical daughter cells - Reproduction of human organism is the major task o Sperm units with an egg, and a fertilized egg forms and develops into a baby - Regulated by hormones of endocrine system Growth - Increase
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