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Chapter 3

BLG10A/B Chapter 3: BLG10A WEEK 2 TEXTBOOK NOTES.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BLG 10A/B
Professor
Emily Agard

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BLG10AWEEK2Chapter3TheLivingUnitsCellsarethestructuralunitsofalllivingthingsTHECELLULARBASISOFLIFEFourconceptsknowncollectivelyasthecelltheory1Acellisthebasicstructuralandfunctionalunitoflivingorganisms2Theactivityofanorganismdependsonboththeindividualandthecollectiveactivitiesofitscells3Accordingtotheprincipleofcomplementarityofstructureandfunctionthebiochemicalactivitiesofcellsaredictatedbytheirshapesorformsandbytherelativenumberoftheirspecificsubcellularstructures4ContinuityoflifefromonegenerationtoanotherhasacellularbasisRegardlessoftypeallcellscomposedofcarbonhydrogennitrogenoxygentraceamountsofotherelementsAllcellshavesamebasicpartssomecommonfunctionsgeneralizedcompositecellAhumancellhasthreemainparts1Theplasmamembranetheouterboundaryofthecell2Thecytoplasmtheintracellularfluidpackedwithorganellessmallstructuresthatperformspecificcellfunctions3ThenucleusanorganellethatcontrolscellularactivitiesTHEPLASMAMEMBRANEPlasmamembraneseparatestwoofbodysmajorfluidcompartmentsintracellularfluidextracellularfluidTheFluidMosaicModelThefluidmosaicmodelofmembranestructuredepictstheplasmamembraneasanexceedinglythin710nmstructurecomposedofabilayeroflipidmoleculeswithproteinmoleculesdispersedinitProteinsformaconstantlychangingmosaicpatternMembraneLipidsLipidbilayerconstructedlargelyofphospholipidswithsmalleramountsofglycolipidscholesterolandareascalledlipidraftsGlycolipidsarelipidswithattachedsugargroups5oftotalmembranesareglycolipidsSugargroupsmakethatendofglycolipidmoleculepolarfattyacidtailsarenonpolarCholesterolaccountsfor20ofthemembraneslipidsHaspolarregionitshydroxylgroupandnonpolarregionfusedringsystemWedgesplatelikehydrocarbonringsbetweenphospholipidtailsstabilizingmembranewhiledecreasingmobilityofphospholipidsfluidityofmembraneMembraneProteinsProteinsmakeabouthalfofplasmamembranemassresponsibleformostofspecializedmembranefunctionsTwodistinctpopulationsofmembraneproteinsintegralperipheralIntegralproteinsarefirmlyinsertedintothelipidbilayerSomeprotrudefromonemembranefaceonlymosttransmembraneproteinsspanningentiremembraneprotrudingbothsidesAllhavebothhydrophobichydrophilicregionsSometransmembraneproteinsinvolvedintransportothersclustertoformchannelswheresmallwatersolublemoleculesorionscanmoveOthersactascarriersbindingtosubstancesandmovingitthroughmembraneSomearereceptorsforhormonesorchemicalmessengersrelaymessagestocellinteriorsignaltransductionPeripheralproteinsareattachedlooselytointegralproteinsandareeasilyremovedwithoutdisruptingthemembraneIncludesnetworkoffilamentshelpingsupportmembranefromcytoplasmicsidesomeareenzymesOthersaremotorproteinschangingcellshapeduringcelldivisionormusclecellcontractionLipidRafts20ofoutermembranesurfacecontainslipidraftsdynamicassembliesofsaturatedphospholipidsassociatedwithuniquelipidscalledsphingolipidsandlotsofcholesterolQuiltlikelipidraftsmorestablelessfluidthanrestofmembrane
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