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CHY 152 (31)
Chapter 11


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Ryerson University
CHY 152
Robert Gossage

CHY152-Introduction to Organic Chemistry Chapter 11: Intro and Alkanes Summary (All page references are according to Ed. 6 textbook of Chemistry for Today)  1823, central to the study of the organic chemistry has been changed  Friedrich Wohler, German chemist, attempted to synthesize organic compoundswas a success with heating ammonium cyanate and produced urea  Estimated of 250,000 inorganic compounds identified  < 6 million organic compounds known + more new ones are isolated/synthesized per year  organic compounds is the unique ability to form stable covalent bonds with other carbon atoms and with atoms of other elements  inorganic compounds usually ionic bonding, and less likely for covalent bonding  Linus Pauling, Nobel Peace Prize and Nobel Price in chemistry on explanation in hybridization  For alknaes, H (1s) and C (sp3)  Methane is the simplest form of alkane  Carbon atom may share ,ore than 1 pair of election to form multiple bonds, maximum up to 4 bonds since C can only hold an additional of 4 electrons  Molecular formuals give much less info about compound than structural formulas TAKE LOOK @ PAGE 342 TABLE 11.2  Saturated hydrocarbons a.k.a alkanes consist of carbon bonded to 4 other atomes by singles bonds  General formula of alkane: CnH2n+2  Conformations should not represesnt different structural isomers  Greek prefixes that indicate # of atoms in a molecule  N-butaneunbranched chain of butane  Isobutenebranched chain of butane  Suffix –ane determines its an alkane  Suffix –yl determines its an alkyl group from alkane  Nonalkyl groups are –F (fluoro), -Cl (chloro) , -Br (bromo), -I, (iodo), -NOs (nitro), -NH2 (amine)  Geometric isomers a.k.a cis-tran isomers  C-C single bonds in alkane can have a free rotation to take place while C-C bonds in cycloalkanes cant  Alkanes are nonpolar molecules, have lowest melting point and boiling points compared to the other organic compounds of comparable molecular weight  Nonpolar molecules exert very weak attractions for each other  Additional –CH2- units (homologous series) increase molecular weight, melting point and boiling points  Alkanes and
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