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CMN 279 (41)
Chapter 1

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Ryerson University
CMN 279
Fotios Sarris

Chapter 1 CMN 279 Business communication as a path to success - Good communication skills can simplify business and complicated topics making them more meaningful and easier to understand who must use it and help those who need to make a decision based on this information - The ability to communicate is seen as a soft skill meaning that it is a social/interpersonal skill that works well with a person’s technical skills while a hard skill is a technical skill that is required to perform a task - Benefits of effective communication include improved ability to resolve problems and a better decision making approach, ii) improved efficiency, workflow and productivity and iii) improved professional image, business relationships and group dynamics - Being able to communicate effectively depends on learning how to manage information strategically through the use of text, design and technologies to achieve a certain purpose to a target audience. Communicating for a changing workplace - Communication is what brings together core functions The knowledge economy - Knowledge workers are people who create and sell an idea based product - Knowledge product’s advantages over products produced through labor is that their worth can skyrocket as the global market continues to grow - Challenges in a knowledge economy is to make sure that there is a consistent amount of cash to finance research and developmement, to continue to have a source of educated labor and to overcome the issue of having people find jobs elsewhere, aka braindrain Flatter organizations - The old tradition of organizations with layers and with a hierarchial structure is being replaced by a more interactive organization where communication facilitates trust between employees and understanding and motivating others - In order to reduce costs, become more efficient, competitive, etc, hierarchies are getting rid off to make way for flatter organizations, resulting in less managers acting as middlemen to disclose instructions and to interpret them therefore everyone in an organization must be a strong communicator if their business is able to compete Business on a global scale - The economy is more global nowadays due to the fact that there is netscape which facilitates the travel of information and promotes connectivity. Ii) Software and other tools on a computer that encourage teamwork. Iii) open source software which allows anyone to contribute to it. Iv) Outsourcing and offshoring v) Ampliers that are digial, virtual, mobile and personal - The ability to overcome communication barriers, cultural barriers, time zones and to have an open mind to a new culture by accepting their values is needed to be successful in the global economy More diverse employee base - The diverse workforce that is available is a result of having a good economic sense which involves taking advantage of the skills and other traits of a diverse workforce Teamwork environments - Cross functional teams, are made up of people who excel in different fields who work together to achieve the same goal, this teamwork will get the most of the creativity of the team as it involves by making members participate and contribute in decision making and project development - To be able to work in a team, it requires good communication and the social skill of people to be able to overcome problems that may be caused by differences between each other Advancing communication technologies - Communications is now accomplished through many different technologies - Technology allows communication to be feasible 24/7 Connectivity through web 2.0 technologies - Web 2.0 allows people to create, share and distribute information - Web 1.0 allows people to look for information through software on the computer and to share information through programs available on the computer Communication defined - Communication is a process where there is an exchange of important information between two or more people, it is a relational process - Another definition of communication is that it is a man made way to understand the world and communicate that with everyone else - When communicating with another person, we give value to things based on social and cultural contexts and control the world around us Communication as a field of study - Communication theory is a system of ideas for trying to understand communication that takes place and why certain gestures may give off different meanings - To be able to communicate more effectively can be accomplished through different approaches such as rhetoric which is the use of language to convince an audience to agree with you, semantics is the study of the words and symbols chosen that is used, semiotics is where how meaning is assigned and understood and cybernetics is the study of how information is processed and how communication systems function The communication process - Communication can be understood in terms of being situated, meaning that it is a part of a certain environment or a socio cultural context - Communication can be understood in terms of being relational meaning that it includes the ability to interact effectively and ethically according to the situation and its needs and it can be transactional meaning that it is an ongoing exchange of information between two or more people where they get used to each other - Communication involves interaction with another person where both sender and receiver are involved in a necessary if not equal partnership - Communication can be seen as a process of moving information from the sender to the receiver as efficiently as possible, and in a way where the receiver will understand the message as intended which is accomplished through code which are the symbols or signs or a language that represents a thought through a channel and has a mutual value between the two parties with the purpose of getting a reaction from the receiver - For communication to be effective, the receiver must understand what is important from the information given and making it mean something Elements of the communications process - According to Shannon and weaver, communication is a process where one person is able to effect another - There must be a sender and a receiver - The message can be written, oral or non verbal that is given by the sender to a person(s) - Success is assessed by whether the receiver was able to understand the message the way it was intended to be understood I Sender - The sender is the person in the communication process who has an intent and discloses it to another being by encoding it in a message - Encoding is where we take our purpose and convert it into a code in order to give off a written, oral or non verbal message Channel - Channel is the way messages are able to travel from one person to another - Synchronous channels are those where the other party recieves the message instantly and are able to respond asap - Asynchronous channels are those where there is a delay between the delivery of the message between both parties iii) receiver - The receiver is the one who recieves the message, the one who understands the message by trying to identify the meaning behind the message. - Decoding is where we try to find the meaning behind verbal, non-verbal communication iv) feedback - Feedback is the reaction from the receiver that confirms that the message was received and understood which can be verbal or non-verbal - Feedback allows for clarification and that the message has a mutual meaning between the two parties Barriers to effective communication - Noise is any sound given off by a physical or psychological event that influences the meaning of am essage - Murphy’s law of the communication process is that if something may affect a message, it may result negatively unless we are aware of the communication barriers and take actions to overcome them i) Channel overload – too many messages, channel is not able to handle them as there is too much ii) Information overload – is where a channel has too much information to be taken in at one time or if there are too many messages given at one time for the receiver to be able to handle them iii) Emotional interference is the feeling of a person can influence their ability to communicate without having their emotions have a negative impact on the message as it prevents others from properly understanding the sender’s message. iv) Semantic interference – bypassing is where there is a confusion in terms of the meaning of the message as words have a variety of meanings to a variety of people therefore changes in meaning, thought-to-be emphasis on something may be false which leads to miscommunication v) Physical and technical interference – technical difficulties vi) Mixed messages and channel barriers- messages may contradict others thus confusing the receiver in terms of which message to understand vii) Environmental interference – the person’s characteristics can affect how they understand a message Ways to overcome barriers is to be aware of the way we communicate and to be able to take action to meet the need and expectation of receivers - Be timely and time sensitive - Be purposeful in long messages - Focus attention on the speaker ‘s message and its meaning - Be context sensitive: Take into account the communication situation and if the channel is most appropriate for the situation and the audience - Be proactive – if there is confusion, try to clarify its meaning before responding Communication contexts - Five skills needed for effective communication I) Interpersonal communication - Also known as dyadic which means It involves two people who communicate face to face, or through mediated channels - Is informal and unstructured and takes place in a certain situation to achieve something ii) Small group communication - 3-20 people to achieve common goals - Members must be able to communicate with each other freely and their relationships are necessary to achieve the mediated outcomes. iii) organizational communication - Communication that takes place within a top-down social structure made up of individual units that are reliant upon each other who try to achieve common goals - People who are a part of this structure take on a specialized role given due to their formalized behaviors and rules that are part of the culture iv) Intercultural communication - The control over messages that are sent between people who are different from each other in terms of cultures where changes are made to account for differences between their usual way of communicating v) mass communication - small amount of senders vs large amount of receivers Nonverbal communication - Strong non verbal skills and abilities are a key factor in constructing and maintaining relationships with others and influencing the way we are perceived - Non verbal messages have the ability to amplify the message people are trying to communicate adnd to work at cross purposes to a message’s primary aim Five roles of non verbal communication in verbal communication i) Repetition - Non verbal cues can repeat a verbal message ii) Contradiction results in confusion and more challenges for the decoder iii) Regulation – non-verbal communication can control conversations iv) Substitution – non verbal message can rveal a verbal message v)
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