Textbook Notes (363,222)
Canada (158,274)
CMN 279 (41)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Getting the Message Across

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Ryerson University
CMN 279
Gaye Savage

CHAPTER 1 GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS y Communication transactional and relational process involving the meaningful exchange of information o Human process through which we make sense out of the world and share that sense with others y Communication theory system of ideas for explaining communicationy Rhetoric the use of language to persuade an audience y Semantics the study of the words and symbols we choose y Semiotics the study of how meaning is assigned and understood y Cybernetics the study of how information is processed and how communication systems functionTHE COMMUNICATION PROCESS y Communication understood in terms of being i Situated embedded in a particular environment or sociocultural context ii Relational involves the ability to interact effectively and ethically according to what is needed at a given moment iii Transactional cooperative activity in which people adapt to one another y Process of transferring data from a sender to a receiver as efficiently and accurately as possibleELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS y Message any type of oral written or nonverbal communication that is transmitted by a sender to an audience y Sender the participant in the transaction who has an idea and communicates it by encoding it in a message o Content tone emphasis and organization is shaped by senders context knowledge attitudes background and other assumptions based on the senders experience y Encoding the act of converting ideas into code in order to convey a written oral or nonverbal message y Channel communication pathway or medium over which a message travels y Receiver the person for whom a message is intended who decodes the message by extracting meaning from it y Decoding the act of extracting meaning from spoken written and nonverbal communication y Feedback receivers response to a message that confirms if the original message was received and understoodBARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION y Noise any form of physical or psychological interference that distorts the meaning of a message y Communication barriers problems that can affect the communication transaction leading to confusion or misunderstanding1 Channel overload inability of a channel to carry all transmitted messages 2 Information overload receiver cannot process all messages due to their increasing number 3 Emotional interference psychological factor that creates problems with the communication transaction 4 Semantic interference interference caused by ambiguity jargon language or dialect differences and different ways of assigning meaning y Bypass misunderstanding that results from the receiver inferring a different meaning from a message based on the different meanings of the words that are used 5 Physical and technical interference interference external to the sender and receiver 6 Mixed messages conflicting perceptions of a signal or message that may result in miscommunication 7 Channel barriers inappropriate choices of channel that impede communication 8 Environment interference interference from preconceptions and differing frames of reference
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