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Chapter Ch. 3, 5

CRI 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter Ch. 3, 5: Post-Fordism, Personal Branding, Cultural Capital

Creative Industries
Course Code
CRI 100
Dr.Louis Etienne Dubois
Ch. 3, 5

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CRI 100 10/15/16
Week 7 – Readings
Introducing the creative industries-ch. 3, 5
Ch. 3-institutions, ownership and entrepreneurship
o The institutional landscape of the modern creative industries is made up of 3 types of
organizational structure:
Freelance workers
à have clients, not employers
Small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
à contract freelance workers; allows more
flexibility in a project-based industry.
Multinational corporations
à employ large number of permanent staff + SMEs +
freelancers (in the area of content creation).
o Hollywood moved to a “packaging” model, in which they continued to commission and distribute
films but began to outsource the actual production to independent production companies.
became an important business model and is part of what is referred to as “Post-
o Neoliberalism on government policy changed organizational structures, privatizing state-owned
institutions/businesses and the relaxation of state-control through deregulation. à broadcasting
regulations being lifted.
o This allowed for broadcasting companies to easily expand and operate for commercial gain. à
increase in conglomerate mergers and SMEs, freelancers.
o The contrast between large and small companies in the CI referred to as
“hourglass structure”.
there is a “missing middle” / ecology of “whales and plankton”.
- High number of freelancers + microbusinesses (content creation).
- Dominant presence of extremely large, multinational corporations (commissioning,
publishing, distribution).
o Gatekeepers such as publishers, studios and broadcasters connect the artists/creators to the
o The casualization of work and outsourcing increases flexibility and competitiveness in the CI.
o Segmentation in CI: due to competitive buyer’s market, many are forced to settle for long
working hours and low pay rates (non-unionized); while the “unionized A-list craft and talent” are
utilized on high budget productions.
Trade Unions:
the practice of individual workers joining together to exercise collective strength. à in
the Middle Ages, artisans belonged to
trade guilds.
Closed shop:
a place of work where membership in a union is a condition for being hired and for
continued employment.
o If they are powerful enough, trade unions can operate as gatekeepers and support structures.
o Important to set standard rates across the industry (role of the trade unions).
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