Chapter One: Crime and Criminology
criminal justice system: the various sequential stages of criminal justice through which
the offender passes: police, courts, corrections.
intimate violence: crime that occurs in a context of familiarity, such as wife abuse or
criminology: the specific study of the nature, extent, and control of criminal behaviour.
criminologist: one who brings objectivity and method to the study of crime and its
deviant behaviour: behaviour that departs from social norms but isn’t always a crime.
decriminalization: reducing the penalty for a criminal act but not actually legalizing it.
utilitarianism: the view that punishment should be balanced and fair because criminal
behaviour must be seen as purposeful and reasonable.
classical criminology: thereotical perspective suggesting that people have free will to
choose criminal or conventional behaviours, the people choose to commit crime for greed
or personal need, and crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions.
positivism: the branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural
sciences and suggests that human behaviour is a product of social, biological,
psychological, or economic forces.
criminal anthropology: early efforts to discover a biological basis of crime through
measurement of physical and mental processes, associated with Cesare Lombroso and the
atavistic anomalies: according to Lombroso, the physical characteristics of born
criminals that indicate they are throwbacks to animals or primitive people.
anomie: a condition produced by normlessness, the individual has no guide to what is
socially acceptable. it occurs when personal goals cannot be achieved by available means.
Chicago School: sociological research that begun within the 20 century associated with
Park, Burgess, Wirth, Thrasher, and their colleagues. pioneered research on the social
ecology of the city and the study of urban crime.
bourgeoisie: in Marxist theory, the owners of the means of production, the capitalist
proletariat: in Marxist theory, the working class who provide the labour. criminological enterprise: the totality of criminology, which includes many fields,
subareas of study.
white collar crime: illegal acts that capitalize on a person’s status in the marketplace,
such as embezzlement, market manipulation, restraint of trade, and false advertising.
moral entrepreneurs: interest groups or powerful individuals who attempt to control
social life and the legal order in an effort to promote their own personal set of moral
values. (interactionist view of crime)
the definition of crime: crime is a violation of societal rules and behaviour as interpreted
and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political
power. individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority, to
social stigma, and to loss of status. (aka rich white dudes rule all).
Habitually aggressive behaviour is often learned in homes where children are victimized
and parents serve as aggressive role models. The learned violence persists into adulthood.
Public fear of crime determines how people feel about their communities. People tend
to draw on the media to define the likelihood of crime as opposed to their own
Third hand knowledge of crime: negative longterm effects creating a fear of crime,
negative view of police, and an attitude for favouring harsher punishments for offenders.
Fear of crime results in people being more in favour of investing resources into
reducing crime than reducing poverty.
Most important areas of interest to criminologists: development of criminal law ad its
use to define crime, the cause of law violations, and the methods used to control criminal
behaviour, as well as the scientific method.
Not all deviant acts are crime, not all crimes are deviant. (ex: marijuana as a recreational
drug). Two issues concerning deviant acts: how do deviant behaviours become crimes?
when should acts considered crimes be legalized
R. v. Sharpe (2011) – Robin Sharpe possessed pornographic stories involving children,
judges in the Supreme Court ruled that he was deprived of his right to freedom of
expression when police seized his pornography because the stories were for personal use.
Cesare Lombroso: believed that offenders are born criminals and have inheritd criminal
traits. believes that criminals supposedly look canine and primitive. concluded that
criminogenic traits could be acquired through indirect heredity from degenerate family.
L.A.J. Quetelet: One of the first social scientists to use objective mathematical
techniques to investigate the influence of social factors such a season, climate, sex, age,
and the propensity to commit crime. “Social forces significantly correlated with crime
Emile Durkheim: one of the founders of sociology. Crime is normal because it has
existed in every age, it is inevitable as people are so varied from one another. The
existence of crime implies that the society is open for social change and that social
structure is not rigid. If people all behaved the same way, that is the only way for crime to
not exist. Consensus view of crime: Crimes are repugnant