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Chapter 13

Textiles - Chapter 13.docx

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Ryerson University
FSN 101
Sandra Tullio Pow

Chapter 13: Fancy Weaves and Fabrics p. 291 - Fancy fabrics differ from basic in design, texture and pattern permanent part of the fabric’s structure that cannot be removed without dismantling the fabric - Fancy fabrics also has those made with fancy/novelty yarns and fancy knits - Production for fancy weaves is more involved than basic – costs are higher, more specialization - Fancy weaves are made by changing the interlacing pattern between the design area and the background - Interlacing pattern is controlled by the warp yarns’ position during weaving - Fancy fabrics are also known as structural design fabrics since the design is incorporated as the fabric is made Dobby Weaves - Dobby weaves are small-figured designs that require fewer than 25 different warp arrangements to complete 1 repeat of design; made on a loom with a dobby attachment: a dobby loom - 2 methods to create pattern; - Older: weave pattern is controlled by a plastic tape with punched holes- resemble the rolls for a player piano; holes control the position of each warp yarn in forming a shed - Newer method: creating a simple geometric pattern in the fabric uses a computer to control the position of the warp yarns; faster and more compatible with CAD systems - Bird’s-eye has a small diamond-shaped filling-float design with a dot in the centre that resembles the eye of a bird - Huck-a-buck has a pebbly surface made by filling floats; medical-office towels - Madras- small, satin-flat designs on ribbed/plain ground - Waffle cloth is made with dobby attachment and has 3D honeycomb appearance – blankets, dish and bar cloths Extra-Yarn Weaves - Additional warp/filling yarns of different colours are woven into the fabric to create a pattern in an extra-yarn weave - Extra warp float across the back of fabric and usually cut away during finishing - Hand-woven fabrics, the warp yarns are manipulated by hand - Extra-yarn are wounded on a separate beam and threaded into separate heddles, floats form behind the fabric then clipped to give a fringe effect - Dotted swiss (small-dot designs); may be extra-filling-yarn structural designs: clipped-dot designs or swivel-dot designs; either side works - Clipped-spot/clipped-dot designs are made with low-twist filling yarns by separate shuttles - Swivel-dot fabrics are made on a loom that has an attachment holding tiny shuttles - Fabric is woven so the shuttles are above the ground fabric - Two yarn ends per dot- imported designer fabrics Pique Weaves - Means quilted because the raised effect in fabric is similar to quilts - Pique weave produces a fabric with ridges called wales or cords; held up by floats on the back - Wide-wale pique (0.25”) is woven with 20+ warp yarns in the face of the wale with 2 warps forming a valley - Pinwale pique (0.05”) is a six-warp wale with 2 consecutive filling yarns across the back of odd-numbered wales then woven in face of even - Stuffer yarns are laid under ridges in good quality pique fabrics to emphasize roundness; presence/absence is way of determining quality - Woven either on dobby or jacquard loom - Cords/wales usually run in lengthwise direction; have definite technical face and back - With abrasion, the floats on the wrong side usually wear out first - Have more resistant to wrinkling and have more body than flat fabrics - Better-quality are made with long-staple combed yarns - Bedford cord is a heavy fabric with wide warp cords used for bedspread Jacquard Weaves - Large-figured designs that need more than 25 different arrangements of the warp yarns to complete 1 repeat design are jacquard weaves woven on jacquard loom - Newer method- combines a computer with air-jet loom called electronic jacquard loom - Computer controls the position of the warp yarns and insertion of different- coloured filling yarns; fast, compatible with CAD systems and allows easy pattern changes - Damask; satin flats on satin background; floats in design are opposite in ground; patterns are subtle but visible because of slight differences in light reflected from the two areas - Flattest jacquard fabric; quality and durability are dependent on count - Brocade has satin/twill floats on plain, ribbed, twill/satin background; more varied in length and several colours - Brocatelle are similar to brocade, the have raised pattern - Frequently made with filament yarns using a warp-faced pattern and filling- faced ground - Jacquard tapestry is mass-produced for upholstery, handbags and the like; 2+ sets of warp and 2+ filling interlaced so face warp is never on back - Wilton rugs are figured-pile fabrics made on jacquard loom; expensive to weave Momie Weaves - No wale or other distinct weave effect but gives the fabric the appearance of being sprinkled with small spots or seeds - Resembles crepe made from yarns of high twist - Also called granite or crepe weave; used for apparel and interior textiles - Sand crepe is medium-weight to heavy weight fabric or either spun/filament yarns  repeated pattern of 16 warp and filling yarns; no float greater than 2 yarns - Granite cloth is made with a momie weave, based on the satin weave; even- sided fabric with no long floats and twill effects - Moss crepe combines high-twist crepe and momie weave  yarns are plied yarns with 1 ply of crepe-twist single yarn - Regular yarns may alternate with plied yarns; should be treated as a high- twist crepe fabric - Mostly in dresses and blouses - Bark cloth is heavyweight momie-weave used for interiors - Interlacing pattern uses spun yarns and create a fabric with rough texture looking like tree bark; printed or solid Leno Weaves - Weave in which the warp yarns do not lie parallel to each other - Warp yarns work in groups, usually pairs of 2, 1 yarn of each pair is crossed over the other before the filling yarn is inserted - Made for doup attachment; thin needle supported by 2 heddles - Yarns are crossed and that one yarn of the pair is always above the other - Marquisette, mosquito netting, agritextiles to shade delicate plants, and some bags for laundry, fruit and vegetables - Polyester marquisettes are used for sheer curtains; fabrics are characterized by open spaces between the yarns - Crossed-yarn arrangement gives greater firmness and strength; snagging may be a problem - Chenille yarn is used for leno weave Double Cloth - Made from three or more sets of yarns; 2 sides of double-cloth usually look different because of fabrication method - 3 types of woven double-cloth fabrics: 1. Double cloth – coat fabrics: melton and kersey 2. Double weave – apparel and upholstery fabrics: matelassé and pocket weave 3. Double faced – blankets, double-satin ribbon, lining fabric, and silence cloth - Made with fi
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