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Chapter 12

Textiles - Chapter 12.docx

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Ryerson University
FSN 101
Sandra Tullio Pow

Chapter 12: Weaving, Basic Weaves, and Fabrics p. 256-279 Fabric- a pliable, plane-like structure that can be made into two- or three- dimensional products that require some shaping and flexibility Fabric quality influences  Product cost  Suitability for a target market  Aesthetic characteristics  Consumer appeal and satisfaction Fabric Quality Fabric quality describes freedom from defects, uniform structure and appearance, and performance during production and in consumers’ hands- affects textile producers, designers, retailers and consumers - Influences product cost, suitability for a target market, aesthetic characteristics and consumer appeal and satisfaction - Defects: assigned a point value based on their length/size - Fabric grading: manufacturers determine the quality level suitable for their product line and target market - Fabric performance – strength, wrinkle, shrinkage, etc Woven Fabrics - All woven fabrics are made with 2 or more sets of yarns interlaced at right angles – biaxial - 2 basic components: warp yarns and filling yarns - Lengthwise: warp yarns/ends - Crosswise: filling yarns/weft - Weaving is oldest/most widely used methods of making fabric - Characteristics: interlaced at right angles, has grain, relatively stable The Loom - Weaving is done on a machine called a loom - Warp yarns – held taut within the loom and filling yarns are inserted and pushed into place to make the fabric - During Industrial Rev, high-speed looms were developed - Warp beam: warp yarns that are sufficient for the length, width and density of the fabric to be woven - Harness is a frame to hold the heddles - Heddle is a wire with a hole or eyelet in its center through which a warp yarn is threaded - Shed- when the warp forms a shed, through which the filling is inserted - Shuttles- - Reeds- beats the filling yarn into place to make the fabric firm; the spaces between the wires – dents - Weaving consists of the following: 1. Shedding: raising one or more harnesses to separate the warp yarns and form a shed 2. Picking: passing the shuttle through the shed to insert the filling 3. Beating up: pushing the filling yarn into place in the fabric with the reed 4. Take-up: winding finished fabric onto the fabric beam - The most frequent type of commercial loom is four-harness loom Preparing for Weaving  Winding - Repackaged so that they can be used to weave a fabric on a specific loom  Creeling - A large frame that holds the yarn as it wound on a warp bean  Warping/Dressing the Loom - Each yarn is threaded through a heddle and must be parallel or it will cause tension which makes the yarns to break - Weave structure in fabric is determined by: 1. The order in which the warp yarns are threaded through the harness 2. Combination of harnesses raised or lowered at a time 3. The sequence in which the harnesses are raised or lowered Loom Advancements Centers on: 1. Devices to weave intricate designs 2. Computers and electronic monitoring systems to increase speed, patterning and quality repairing problems 3. Quicker and more efficient means of inserting filling yarns 4. Automatic devices to speed the take-up of woven cloth 5. Devices that facilitate and speed up changing the warp  Patterning Capabilities - Devices that control the position of the warp yarns; can woven pictures  Computer Systems - Computers are important in developing design tables for maximum weavability: tightness, compactness, etc - Computers detect errors and corrects the problem; done w/o human operator  Loom Efficiency and Versatility - Shuttle looms are replaced with faster, quieter and more versatile shuttleless looms - 4 types of shuttleless looms: air-jet, rapier, water-jet and projectile weaves faster w/ less noise - They are more common in developed countries and more versatile than shuttle looms  Air-Jet Loom - The filling yarn is premeasured and guided through a nozzle, where a narrow jet of air sends it through the shed - Ideal for yarn that is not too bulky/heavy  Rapier Loom - Double-rapier loom has a metal arm called a carrier - Measures and cuts the correct length of filling yarn  Water-Jet Loom - High pressure jet of water to carry the filling yarn across the warp - Fabric is wet when it comes out of loom so drying costs extra  Projectile Loom - One projectile with grippers carries the yarn across the full width of the shed - Used to produce basic, specialty and technical fabrics  Multi-Width Loom - Additional warp beans allow 2+ widths of fabric to be woven side by side; many basic fabrics  Multi-Shed Loom - More than one shed is formed at a time - Shed is formed and changes when yarn carrier enters one portion of the warp (ppm is faster)  Circular Loom - Weave tubular fabric (pillowcases)  Triaxial Loom - Weaves 3 sets of yarns identical in size and twist at 60 degree angles - 2 yarn sets are warp and the other is filling; produced more quickly - Stable in horizontal, vertical and bias directions; used for balloons, air structures, etc  Environmental Concerns and Sustainability of Weaving - A lot of environmental concerns connects with weaving - Social abuses can occur in weaving mills; employees working excessive hours, child labour, etc - Warp yarns are treated with compounds to minimize problems with abrasion in weaving - Compounds are removed and reclaimed but it is not 100% efficient - Producing better-quality fabric improves efficiency and lessens the environmental impact Characteristics of Woven Fabrics Interlacing is the point at which a yarn changes its position from one side of the fabric to the other Warp and Filling - Warp must withstand the high tensions of the loom and abrasion of weaving- stronger and more uniform with higher twist - Filling are fancy/special-function such as high-twist crepe yarns - Different ways to differentiate between the two (p. 264) Grain - Refers to the geometry of position of warp yarns relative to filling yarns in the fabric - Lengthwise parallel to warp yarn - Off-grain fabrics create problems in production and use - Products do not drape properly or having evenly - Skew- when the filling yarn is at an angle other than 90 degree to the warp; occurs when one side of the fabric travels ahead of the other - Bow occurs when filling yarns dip in the center of the fabric - On-grain indicate high quality standards Fabric Count - Fabric count, count, or fabric density is the number of warp and filling yarns per square inch of gray goods (fabric as it comes from the loom) - Count is an indication of the quality of the fabric: the higher the count, the better quality; count is written first: 80x76; total = 156 - Can be determined by fabric counter or by hand (# of yarns per inch) Balance - The ratio of warp yarns to filling yarns; balanced fabric has a ratio of 1:1 - Unbalanced would be 2:1 - Helpful in recognizing and naming fabrics and in distinguishing the warp direction of fabric - Count is low, slippage is more likely to occur in unbalanced fabrics - Determined by examining a fabric carefully; difficult to determine warp and filling yarns in balanced fabrics Selvages - The lengthwise self-edge of a fabric - The conventional loom make the same kind of selvage on both side, but shuttleless looms have different selvages - Plain selvage do not shrink and can be used for seam edges Fabric Width - Hand-woven fabrics are narrow because that is the comfortable reach for most weavers - Commercial fabric widths are wider because wide fabrics are more economical to weave and allow for more efficient use of fabric in products Fabric Weight - Describes how much a fabric weighs for a given area or length of fabric - Used to identify fabric appropriateness for end use and naming fabrics - Lightweight/top weight: less than 4.0 oz/yd2 – softer and more confortable (blouses, dresses, sheer draperies) - Medium-weight: 4.0-6.0 oz/yd2 – heavier and stiffer shirts, winter-weight bed sheets - Heavyweight more than 6.0 oz/yd2; stiff fabrics for outerwear, work apparel, bedspreads Properties of Woven Fabrics - pg. 267-268 Naming and Diagramming Woven Fabrics - Fabric names are based on fabric structure, fabric weight, yarn type, yarn balance and finishes - Basic weaves are those that are made on a loom without any modification - The 3 Basic we
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