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FSN 132 (24)
Chapter 5

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FSN 132
Luann Lafrenz

Chapter 5: Textiles Fibres and Fabrics p. 99 - Production of fibre and fabrics is the first step in manufacture of clothing, accessories and home fashions - They are considered primary supplies; markers of trimmings are also primary The Fibre Industry - Fibre – extremely fine, almost invisible to the eye is the smallest element of a fabric; starting point - Can be spun or twisted into continuous thread called yarn, then yarn can be woven into fabrics - Natural or manufactured - Natural fibres are found in nature from plant or animal; wood pulp, air, etc - Manufactured fibres are made in a chemist’s lab- “man made” or “synthetic” History and Development - Natural fibres is ancient; developed more slowly while manufactured is recent and rapid advances The Development of Natural Fibres Cotton - Most widely used of all natural fibres; seed of a cotton plant - Primarily of cellulose, carbohydrate that lends itself to manufacture of fibrous and paper products - Absorb moisture quick, dry quickly, good for warm weather - Can be grown in many colours, mostly white - Long cotton fibres (staple) produce finest fabrics Wool - Forms the coat of sheep; sheep quickly grows after it’s been sheered - Composed mostly of protein; natural insulated for warm clothes - Natural crimp which is good for bulky yarn to trap air against cold - Slow drying and absorbency Silk - Cocoon by a silkworm; forces between 2 fine streams of thick liquid - Streams harden into filaments when contact with air; - Breathable, luxurious Flax - Make linen, comes from stem of a flax plant  after fibre is spun into yarn into fabric is the product of linen - Strongest of the vegetable fibre, absorbs and dries quickly - Excellent fibre for warm weather; tendency to wrinkle and hard to iron Ramie - Woody-leafed Asian plant in China; suitable for warm-weather and inexpensive Hemp - Fibrous plant, agricultural staple; apparel and home furnishings, rare and expensive The Development of Manufactured Fibres - Manufactured fibres have improve the quality of life (rayon first) - Offers characteristics that are not in natural fibres; designers like to use them for innovative lines - Starts as thick liquids and the lengths are produced by forcing liquid through tiny homes of spinnerets - Fibres then cut into short lengths and spun into yarn (also with natural, or chemically processed into yarn directly) - 2 types of manufactured fibres: cellulosic and noncellulosic Generic Names for Manufactured Fibres - Generic names/nontrade-marked names; producers can modify composition to produce a new fibre called a variant – given a brand name by producer - Brand names are registered at Patent Office - Properties of fibres influence behavior of finished fabric (washability, durability) Microfibres - Fibre that is 2/3 times smaller than human hair; thinnest and finest of all manufactured fibres - Similar to texture of silk or cashmere; used frequently with designers Organization and Operation Natural Fibre Industry - Almost all cotton growers sell their product in local markets to mill or wholesalers - Linen, silk and ramie are imported from foreign sources - Natural fibre industry affected by manufactured fibres; forced it to attend the needs of their customers - Cotton is now promoted a year-round fibre and wool is now treated to be lightweight for year-round - Natural fibres are treated with special finishes that give them properties of manufactured fibres Manufactured Fibre Industry - Chemical companies are adaptable; built factories where companies have found raw materials for convenient shipment - Also can serve its own market; purchase fibres from chemical companies Fibre Development - Competing laboratories work to develop new products to meet these preferences of consumers - Textile Fibres Production Identification Act - Consumer products that use textile fibres are required to carry labels indicating country where the fibre was processed, generic names and % of fibre Fibre Distribution - Producer’s sells in one of three ways: 1. Unbranded production with no restrictions on end use 2. Branded or trademarked fibres to assure consumers their quality has been controlled but not for the end use 3. Under a licensing agreement where fibre trademark is permitted to manufactures who’s fabrics pass tests set up for their specific end uses or applications Merchandising and Marketing - Producers make extensive use of advertising, publicity and market research – also customer service to manufacturers, retailers and consumers - Usually they undertake these activities on behalf of its own individual brand and companies - AFMA provides program of consumer education about manufactured fibres Advertising and Publicity - Manufactured fibre industries spend money on advertising than natural - Directly at consumer and trade markets; will promote an entire range of textile or concentrate on single fibre - Natural fibres are putting more effort to campaign manufactured; they promote the fibre itself - Ex- Cotton Inc. emphasize advantages and the importance in the economy - Fibre sources provide producers with aids that facilitate mention of their fibres in advertising - Benefits: consumers) associate fibre name with other that are already familiar – introducing new manufactured fibre - Fabric and garment producers) encouraged to use and promote fibre because producer’s share of ad costs subsidizes ads Research and Development - Manufactured fibre producers conduct research and development, natural produces often work through the trade group for a particular fibre Customer Services - Offers services: - Technical advice - Assistance to textile and garment producers and retailers in locating supplies - Fabric library about sources, prices, delivery - Fashion presentations and exhibits for textile industry - Extensive literature for manufactures Trends in the Fibre Industry - Biggest trend is increase use of blends of natural and manufactured fibres - Fibre industry is fighting to overcome the rapid increase of imports into its domestic markets - US fibre industry will have to fight for its share of the international market - Technology to service customers more quickly and efficiently - Industry is stronger on the horizon The Textile Fabric Industry - Textile fabric is any material that is made by weaving, knitting, braiding, knotting, laminating or chemical bonding - Basic material from most articles of accessories are made - Each person consumes almost 86 pounds of textile fabric annually - Yarns are woven or knit into greige goods or unfinished fabrics
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