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History of Costume 302 Study Guide

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FSN 302
Sue Barnwell

Week 1: The MiddleAges & Renaissance: The Rise of Fashion: Chapter 14 MEN'S DRESS OF THE ROthNESQUE ERA th  From the 11 century to the second half of the 12 century, changed very little from the Carolingian Era.  Frankish tunic/gonelle – long sleeve, T-cut outer garment extended to the knees for commoners, longer for nobility. New to the silhouette was a fullness of fabric at the waistline. Wool was the prevalenet material used, although in warmer climates, a heavy- gauge linen was used.  Bilaut – during the transition from Romanesque to Gothic, the gonelle was replaced by the bliaut. The bliaut was a closer fitting, tailored tunic. First adopted by the noblity and was made with a separate bodice, skirt, and set-in gores at the hip for a more tailored look. Fullness of the skirts was gathered or pleated and hemlines extended below the knees to floor-length. The peasant class continued to wear the shapeless gonelle.  Chausses – new form of tailored hose that replaced the baggy pedules of the Carolingians. At this time, men wore thigh-high hose that were held up by strings stiched the waist belt under the bliaut.  Men usually went bareheaded except for outside. Styles of hats worn outside ranged from skull caps, wide-brim hats, hooded capes, poncho-styles cloaks (especially worn by the working class).  Men's shths: round-toed boot for outdoors, slipper-style shoes for indoors. Beginning in the 12 century, men's shoes featured a pointed toe (influenced by the Ottoman styles brought by Crusaders). This early pointed-toe shoe was called the pigache. Peasants wore heavv workboots/wooden clogs. WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE ROMANEQSUE ERA  Ordinary women – costume remained the same of the Carolingian era. Long sleeve, T-cut tunics, draped loosely at the shoulers, girded at the waist, fell to the floor.  By the late 12 century, women began wearing the chainse (a new form of the outer tunic). The chainse was the everyday clothing of upper class women. Excessive length and train, impractical for doing domestic work. Represented the status of women (could afford the amount of fabric for clothing). Like the men's bliaut, made to be more form- fitting.  Outerwear continued to be woolen cloaks, short apes, and the casula.  Unmarried women wore no head coverings while indoors, and braided their waist length hair into 1 or 2 braids. Married women veiled their hair, although not every knot or bun was concealed. By the end of the 12 century, women veiled their hair completely. New type of headdress came into style at the end of the 12 century – the toque. It was a small, brimless hat, secured under the chin by a linen band called a barbette (barbe). The neck was covered by a wimple, a scarf that draped under the chin and fastened to the head covering at the ears.  Undergarments was the full-length chemise, and tailored, woven hose. Both were made of linen. MEN'S DRESS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY  Cote (cotte) – replaced the snug-fitting bliaut. The cote was cut in a single piece with a full skirt. Lengths ranged from the knees to the ankles.Aslit was added in the front and back, sleeves were wide at the armhole and tapered from the elbow to wrist.  Upper classes often wore the cote as an under tunic. Layered over the cote was a new style of tunics called the surcote. The surcote was sleeveless, looser fitting, cut with various necklines and deep armholes. The surcote was shorter than the cote to reveal contrasting fabrics and textures.  Gardcorp – type of outerwear. Overcoat with voluminous sleeves or long handing sleeves with slits. Tops of the sleeves were gathered or tucked.  Mantel – type of outerwear. Long, front-closure rain cape that draped around the shoulders and closed at the neck with an adjustable cord.  Garnache – loose, flowing, cloak-like garment with two tabs that fastened across the chest and below the neck.  Herigaut – similar to the garnache. Less elegant, long, wide sleeves with slits for the arms to pass through.  Pelicon – fur-lined apparel, display of wealth and status.  Long style costume with excessive use of material, construction of pleats, gores, flared sleeves and layering of garments: luxuries of the MiddleAges. The dress of ordinary people hardly changed until the end of the century. If hose was worn, they were the baggy chausses.  Calotte - larger form of the skullcap that covered most of the top and back of the head.  Coif – resembles a modern baby bonnet, all men wore the coif by the end of the 13 th century.  Shoes: closed styles with buckles or laces, slip-on boots. Pointed-toe shoes reappeared th during the third quarter of the 12 century but were less exaggerated. WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY  By the beginning of the 13 century, the feminine bliaut was replaced by a simpler cote and surcote that fitted straight to the hips and flared into a full, long skirt.  The poncho-style casula continued to be a popular outer garment.  Women's accessories did not undergo a big change. Small hats were draped with netting, scarves were held in place by wimples and barbettes. Same type of slippers, softly constructed boots. MEN'S DRESS OF THE LATE GOTHIC PERIOD  Most significant change in costume of the fourteenth century was the replacement of the long, flowing silhouette with a shorter, more fitted design.  Pourpoint – short, tight fitting jacket replaced the cote as the basic men's garment during the mid 1300's. Tailored with darts and seams to fit the contour the body. Short skirts reflected the change from the long, vertical lines of the Gothic period.  Doublet – shorter version of the pourpoint, skirts that barely extended to the hips.A merger of the surcote and the pourpoint.  Cotehardie – outer tunic that was more fitted at the shoulders and waist. Usuallly short, sleeves were cropped at the elbow.  Houppelande – fitted through the shoulders, flared into a fullness that was gathered into thick folds o pleats in the front and back.Ankle-length versions were preferred by the mature and knee/mid thigh lengths were preferred by the youth. Sleeves were enormous bell-shaped styles, high, stiff collar.  Dagging – second half of the 14 century and throughout the 15 century, sleeves, collars, hemlines, etc. Edged with dagging (scalloped or crenellated cut)  In the second half of the 14 century, the houppelande was replaced by the jacket. Worn by all classes of men. The jacket had a separate skirt and bodice, and a shaped and padded shoulder line. Mid-thigh hemline or shorter.  Outwear remained the same with the garnache and hericault, but more dagging.  Poulaine/Crackow (France/England) – shoes with exaggerated points, tapered length. More elongated.  Hair: bowl cut became popular. WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE LATE GOTHIC PERIOD  Gowns – formally a cote. Form fitting throughout the shoulders, torso, and oer the hips. Flared into a full, floor length skirt. Sleeves were close-fitting.  Houppelande – shoulderlines were soft and fitted. Bodice was gathered or pleated under a girdle set above the natural waistline. This short-waisted silhouette gave the appearance of a pregnant woman. The V-neckline sometimes plunged to the waist to show the contrasting fabric or gown underneath.  More elaborate head pieces. Horned veil – light frame of wire or whalebone fixed to a base cap and shaped to form two points at the temples.  Accessories: gloves, as necklines inched lower, more women began wearing necklaces. ** Read chapter 14** Week 2: European Renaissance 1450 – 1600: Chapter 15 MEN'S DRESS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE  Men's jackets of the second half of the 15 century: square body lines, arrangement of pleats in the front and back. Tailored to fit closely through the shoulders and torso. Sleeves were varied, most popular was full from the shoulder to the elbow and close- fitting from the elbow to wrist. Hemlines ranged in length from short peplums to fully pleated crops at the knees.  By the 1480's variations of the doublet became alternatives to the jacket as an outer garment. Constructed with a separate bodice and short skirt  Men's hose: set of two leggings, for lower class men. For wealthier men, the joined form of hose was preferred. Smoother, tight fit was achieved by cutting on the bias.  Outerwear – cloaks, poncho-style hukes of varying length and fabric weights.  Shoes – round toed. WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE  The length of the gown no longer pooled around the floor, made to be the height of the wearer. Bodices are close-fitting with a rounded or squared neckline. Girded above the natural waistline. Sleeves are close-fitting, styled with slashes or open seams.  Cloaks were the primary outerwear.  Shoes were flat-heeled, round-toe slippers.  In Italy, the veiled head pieces were not as popular. Women preferred to display elaborate hairstyles or ornaments. Juliet caps – small round, oval, or crescent shaped caps. MEN'S DRESS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY  Ruches – tightly stitched gathers that formed a ruffle around the neckline of the shirt Doublet continued to be the main garment for the torso. Necklines were cut more wide, sleeves became more voluminous.  Upper stocks – trouser-like upper hose, fitted around the hips and thighs. Fastened to the hemline of the doublet with laces or points.  Codpiece – became a stylized, assertive declaration of masculinity. Padded.  Jacket of the 16 century was made more full and loose in comparison to the snugly fitted doublet and upper stocks. Wide lapels, oversized puffed sleeves.  Peascod belly/goose-belly doublet – doublet that is padded in the front of the garment. th  Ruff – wide circle of heavily starched, uniform ruffles. By the end of the 16 century, the ruff grew wider and was layered.  Men's hose: same type as earlier in the century, either a pair of leggings or joined tights style.  Melon breeches (pumpkin hose) – became fuller. Constructed in which vertical panes were sewn to the waistband and the garter-like thighbands.  Mandilion – cape with sleeves worn loosely over the shoulders.  Spanish cape – short, hooded cape cut as a three-quarter circle and cropped to the hips.  Shoes: new shape that emphasized the breadth rather than length. Not as pointed, wider. WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY  Style of gowns became fuller and more flowing. Necklines were wide and low. Bodice was form-fitting, girded above the waistline. Skirts were pleated or gathered for fullness.  In Spanish women's fashion, two key elements were the bodice and farthingale. The Spanish Farthingale was made from circular wooden hoops of graduated widths, which were sewn to a stuff line under skirt, forming a bell shape.  The waistline moved down to its normal position and sometimes came to a point below the waist. Skirts lost their train and became bell or cone shaped and often opened at the front to reveal an under skirt (petticoat).  Chopines – women's shoes. Ranged from a few inches in height to almost two feet. Adapted from styles brought from China and Japan. **Read chapter 15** Week 3: The Baroque Period: 17th Century: Chapter 16 MEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 1500 – 1550  First quarter of the 1500's was a period of transition for men's dress. Necklines of doublets and jackets were square and oval.  Paltock – type of doublet in England. Sleeveless, cut with a deep U or V front opening where a stomacher (panel of fabric) was inserted. Knee length bases/skirts remained popular, but less full than the Italian ones. Draped softly or pleats were space to lay flat around the hips.  Hose remained the same, codpieces were more exaggerated, padded horn shapes that were excessively decorated.  Duckbill shoes: Wide shape of shoes that replaced the long, pointed poulaine. Wide shape of the shoes reflected the broad shapes of the jackets, capes, and cloaks. WOMEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 1500 – 1550  Gowns: close fitting bodice contours the natural feminine form, shaping the bodice and waistline. Squared neckline is wider and deeper.  Inaugurated by the Madrid court, there was a restriction against open necklines. Bodices were created to conceal the upper torso and neck. By the 1530's, the padding evolved into the busk (torso panel made of layers of linen stitched over whalebone, wood, horn, or metal). Busk was inserted into the front of the bodice with compressed the breasts and turned the torso into an inverted cone shape.  Farthingale – stiff, hooped petticoat that shaped the skirt into a smooth cone. Soft pleats/gathers of the skirt disappeared in favour of rigid geometry.  Kirtle – English version of the Spanish gown with the busk bodice. In the 1540's, the term only applied to the skirts.  Pediment headdress – shaped like a gabled roof of a house, draped with brocade or velvet. WOMEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISANNCE 1550 – 1600  Bolster – padded, tire-like roll that tied around the hips. Gave the appearance of wider hips. French farthingale – uniform stack of hoops arranged in a cylinder from the outer edge of the bolster to the skirt hemline.  English bolster – called a bum roll. Wider than its counterpart in France, wide enough at the hips that the arms could rest on them.  Rebato – circle of ruffled lace that rose behind the head and dipped forward over the th bodice. By the end of the 16 century, the ruff grew wider and underprppers/suportasses were created to support them. **Read chapter 16** Week 3: The Baroque Period: 17th Century: Chapter 17 MEN'S FASHIONS 1600 – 1650  Largely a continuation of styles from the late 1500's. Tight-fitting doublet, pointed waist and voluminous, baggy trunk hose cropped at the knees. Spanish cape was donned, worn over one shoulder. Starched ruff remained popular for older men.  The doublet was now trimmed and tapered, differing from the doublets that previously contained the peascod belly with disappeared around 1600.  In the 1610's, shoes became more varied, often having a heel height of up to two inches.  Doublets of the 1630's were looser and fuller, with a raised waistline.  Fit of men's breeches in the 1630's were still baggy and loose but cut much straighter and less full.  As the doublet became looser, and contained an open front, the shirt became a greater focal point. Parts that could be seen – collars, cuffs, etc were embellished.  Cassock – long sleeve, front closure coat cut on a wideA-line, usually without a waist seam.  Buff coat – outerwear version of the doublet. Used buckskin, slits in the back, front, and sides. MEN'S FASHIONS 1650 – 1700  By the mid 17 century, the doublet became shorter, so
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