Week 1: The MiddleAges & Renaissance: The Rise of Fashion: Chapter 14
MEN'S DRESS OF THE ROthNESQUE ERA th
From the 11 century to the second half of the 12 century, changed very little from the
Frankish tunic/gonelle – long sleeve, T-cut outer garment extended to the knees for
commoners, longer for nobility. New to the silhouette was a fullness of fabric at the
waistline. Wool was the prevalenet material used, although in warmer climates, a heavy-
gauge linen was used.
Bilaut – during the transition from Romanesque to Gothic, the gonelle was replaced by
the bliaut. The bliaut was a closer fitting, tailored tunic. First adopted by the noblity and
was made with a separate bodice, skirt, and set-in gores at the hip for a more tailored
look. Fullness of the skirts was gathered or pleated and hemlines extended below the
knees to floor-length. The peasant class continued to wear the shapeless gonelle.
Chausses – new form of tailored hose that replaced the baggy pedules of the Carolingians.
At this time, men wore thigh-high hose that were held up by strings stiched the waist belt
under the bliaut.
Men usually went bareheaded except for outside. Styles of hats worn outside ranged from
skull caps, wide-brim hats, hooded capes, poncho-styles cloaks (especially worn by the
Men's shths: round-toed boot for outdoors, slipper-style shoes for indoors. Beginning in
the 12 century, men's shoes featured a pointed toe (influenced by the Ottoman styles
brought by Crusaders). This early pointed-toe shoe was called the pigache. Peasants wore
heavv workboots/wooden clogs.
WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE ROMANEQSUE ERA
Ordinary women – costume remained the same of the Carolingian era. Long sleeve, T-cut
tunics, draped loosely at the shoulers, girded at the waist, fell to the floor.
By the late 12 century, women began wearing the chainse (a new form of the outer
tunic). The chainse was the everyday clothing of upper class women. Excessive length
and train, impractical for doing domestic work. Represented the status of women (could
afford the amount of fabric for clothing). Like the men's bliaut, made to be more form-
Outerwear continued to be woolen cloaks, short apes, and the casula.
Unmarried women wore no head coverings while indoors, and braided their waist length
hair into 1 or 2 braids. Married women veiled their hair, although not every knot or bun
was concealed. By the end of the 12 century, women veiled their hair completely. New
type of headdress came into style at the end of the 12 century – the toque. It was a small,
brimless hat, secured under the chin by a linen band called a barbette (barbe). The neck
was covered by a wimple, a scarf that draped under the chin and fastened to the head
covering at the ears.
Undergarments was the full-length chemise, and tailored, woven hose. Both were made of
MEN'S DRESS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
Cote (cotte) – replaced the snug-fitting bliaut. The cote was cut in a single piece with a full skirt. Lengths ranged from the knees to the ankles.Aslit was added in the front and
back, sleeves were wide at the armhole and tapered from the elbow to wrist.
Upper classes often wore the cote as an under tunic. Layered over the cote was a new
style of tunics called the surcote. The surcote was sleeveless, looser fitting, cut with
various necklines and deep armholes. The surcote was shorter than the cote to reveal
contrasting fabrics and textures.
Gardcorp – type of outerwear. Overcoat with voluminous sleeves or long handing sleeves
with slits. Tops of the sleeves were gathered or tucked.
Mantel – type of outerwear. Long, front-closure rain cape that draped around the
shoulders and closed at the neck with an adjustable cord.
Garnache – loose, flowing, cloak-like garment with two tabs that fastened across the chest
and below the neck.
Herigaut – similar to the garnache. Less elegant, long, wide sleeves with slits for the arms
to pass through.
Pelicon – fur-lined apparel, display of wealth and status.
Long style costume with excessive use of material, construction of pleats, gores, flared
sleeves and layering of garments: luxuries of the MiddleAges. The dress of ordinary
people hardly changed until the end of the century. If hose was worn, they were the baggy
Calotte - larger form of the skullcap that covered most of the top and back of the head.
Coif – resembles a modern baby bonnet, all men wore the coif by the end of the 13 th
Shoes: closed styles with buckles or laces, slip-on boots. Pointed-toe shoes reappeared
during the third quarter of the 12 century but were less exaggerated.
WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
By the beginning of the 13 century, the feminine bliaut was replaced by a simpler cote
and surcote that fitted straight to the hips and flared into a full, long skirt.
The poncho-style casula continued to be a popular outer garment.
Women's accessories did not undergo a big change. Small hats were draped with netting,
scarves were held in place by wimples and barbettes. Same type of slippers, softly
MEN'S DRESS OF THE LATE GOTHIC PERIOD
Most significant change in costume of the fourteenth century was the replacement of the
long, flowing silhouette with a shorter, more fitted design.
Pourpoint – short, tight fitting jacket replaced the cote as the basic men's garment during
the mid 1300's. Tailored with darts and seams to fit the contour the body. Short skirts
reflected the change from the long, vertical lines of the Gothic period.
Doublet – shorter version of the pourpoint, skirts that barely extended to the hips.A
merger of the surcote and the pourpoint.
Cotehardie – outer tunic that was more fitted at the shoulders and waist. Usuallly short,
sleeves were cropped at the elbow.
Houppelande – fitted through the shoulders, flared into a fullness that was gathered into
thick folds o pleats in the front and back.Ankle-length versions were preferred by the mature and knee/mid thigh lengths were preferred by the youth. Sleeves were enormous
bell-shaped styles, high, stiff collar.
Dagging – second half of the 14 century and throughout the 15 century, sleeves, collars,
hemlines, etc. Edged with dagging (scalloped or crenellated cut)
In the second half of the 14 century, the houppelande was replaced by the jacket. Worn
by all classes of men. The jacket had a separate skirt and bodice, and a shaped and padded
shoulder line. Mid-thigh hemline or shorter.
Outwear remained the same with the garnache and hericault, but more dagging.
Poulaine/Crackow (France/England) – shoes with exaggerated points, tapered length.
Hair: bowl cut became popular.
WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE LATE GOTHIC PERIOD
Gowns – formally a cote. Form fitting throughout the shoulders, torso, and oer the hips.
Flared into a full, floor length skirt. Sleeves were close-fitting.
Houppelande – shoulderlines were soft and fitted. Bodice was gathered or pleated under a
girdle set above the natural waistline. This short-waisted silhouette gave the appearance of
a pregnant woman. The V-neckline sometimes plunged to the waist to show the
contrasting fabric or gown underneath.
More elaborate head pieces. Horned veil – light frame of wire or whalebone fixed to a
base cap and shaped to form two points at the temples.
Accessories: gloves, as necklines inched lower, more women began wearing necklaces.
** Read chapter 14**
Week 2: European Renaissance 1450 – 1600: Chapter 15
MEN'S DRESS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE
Men's jackets of the second half of the 15 century: square body lines, arrangement of
pleats in the front and back. Tailored to fit closely through the shoulders and torso.
Sleeves were varied, most popular was full from the shoulder to the elbow and close-
fitting from the elbow to wrist. Hemlines ranged in length from short peplums to fully
pleated crops at the knees.
By the 1480's variations of the doublet became alternatives to the jacket as an outer
garment. Constructed with a separate bodice and short skirt
Men's hose: set of two leggings, for lower class men. For wealthier men, the joined form
of hose was preferred. Smoother, tight fit was achieved by cutting on the bias.
Outerwear – cloaks, poncho-style hukes of varying length and fabric weights.
Shoes – round toed.
WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE EARLY RENAISSANCE
The length of the gown no longer pooled around the floor, made to be the height of the
wearer. Bodices are close-fitting with a rounded or squared neckline. Girded above the
natural waistline. Sleeves are close-fitting, styled with slashes or open seams.
Cloaks were the primary outerwear.
Shoes were flat-heeled, round-toe slippers. In Italy, the veiled head pieces were not as popular. Women preferred to display elaborate
hairstyles or ornaments. Juliet caps – small round, oval, or crescent shaped caps.
MEN'S DRESS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Ruches – tightly stitched gathers that formed a ruffle around the neckline of the shirt
Doublet continued to be the main garment for the torso. Necklines were cut more wide,
sleeves became more voluminous.
Upper stocks – trouser-like upper hose, fitted around the hips and thighs. Fastened to the
hemline of the doublet with laces or points.
Codpiece – became a stylized, assertive declaration of masculinity. Padded.
Jacket of the 16 century was made more full and loose in comparison to the snugly fitted
doublet and upper stocks. Wide lapels, oversized puffed sleeves.
Peascod belly/goose-belly doublet – doublet that is padded in the front of the garment.
Ruff – wide circle of heavily starched, uniform ruffles. By the end of the 16 century, the
ruff grew wider and was layered.
Men's hose: same type as earlier in the century, either a pair of leggings or joined tights
Melon breeches (pumpkin hose) – became fuller. Constructed in which vertical panes
were sewn to the waistband and the garter-like thighbands.
Mandilion – cape with sleeves worn loosely over the shoulders.
Spanish cape – short, hooded cape cut as a three-quarter circle and cropped to the hips.
Shoes: new shape that emphasized the breadth rather than length. Not as pointed, wider.
WOMEN'S DRESS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Style of gowns became fuller and more flowing. Necklines were wide and low. Bodice
was form-fitting, girded above the waistline. Skirts were pleated or gathered for fullness.
In Spanish women's fashion, two key elements were the bodice and farthingale. The
Spanish Farthingale was made from circular wooden hoops of graduated widths, which
were sewn to a stuff line under skirt, forming a bell shape.
The waistline moved down to its normal position and sometimes came to a point below
the waist. Skirts lost their train and became bell or cone shaped and often opened at the
front to reveal an under skirt (petticoat).
Chopines – women's shoes. Ranged from a few inches in height to almost two feet.
Adapted from styles brought from China and Japan.
**Read chapter 15**
Week 3: The Baroque Period: 17th Century: Chapter 16
MEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 1500 – 1550
First quarter of the 1500's was a period of transition for men's dress. Necklines of doublets
and jackets were square and oval.
Paltock – type of doublet in England. Sleeveless, cut with a deep U or V front opening
where a stomacher (panel of fabric) was inserted. Knee length bases/skirts remained
popular, but less full than the Italian ones. Draped softly or pleats were space to lay flat around the hips.
Hose remained the same, codpieces were more exaggerated, padded horn shapes that were
Duckbill shoes: Wide shape of shoes that replaced the long, pointed poulaine. Wide shape
of the shoes reflected the broad shapes of the jackets, capes, and cloaks.
WOMEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 1500 – 1550
Gowns: close fitting bodice contours the natural feminine form, shaping the bodice and
waistline. Squared neckline is wider and deeper.
Inaugurated by the Madrid court, there was a restriction against open necklines. Bodices
were created to conceal the upper torso and neck. By the 1530's, the padding evolved into
the busk (torso panel made of layers of linen stitched over whalebone, wood, horn, or
metal). Busk was inserted into the front of the bodice with compressed the breasts and
turned the torso into an inverted cone shape.
Farthingale – stiff, hooped petticoat that shaped the skirt into a smooth cone. Soft
pleats/gathers of the skirt disappeared in favour of rigid geometry.
Kirtle – English version of the Spanish gown with the busk bodice. In the 1540's, the term
only applied to the skirts.
Pediment headdress – shaped like a gabled roof of a house, draped with brocade or velvet.
WOMEN'S DRESS IN THE NORTHERN RENAISANNCE 1550 – 1600
Bolster – padded, tire-like roll that tied around the hips. Gave the appearance of wider
hips. French farthingale – uniform stack of hoops arranged in a cylinder from the outer
edge of the bolster to the skirt hemline.
English bolster – called a bum roll. Wider than its counterpart in France, wide enough at
the hips that the arms could rest on them.
Rebato – circle of ruffled lace that rose behind the head and dipped forward over the
bodice. By the end of the 16 century, the ruff grew wider and underprppers/suportasses
were created to support them.
**Read chapter 16**
Week 3: The Baroque Period: 17th Century: Chapter 17
MEN'S FASHIONS 1600 – 1650
Largely a continuation of styles from the late 1500's. Tight-fitting doublet, pointed waist
and voluminous, baggy trunk hose cropped at the knees. Spanish cape was donned, worn
over one shoulder. Starched ruff remained popular for older men.
The doublet was now trimmed and tapered, differing from the doublets that previously
contained the peascod belly with disappeared around 1600.
In the 1610's, shoes became more varied, often having a heel height of up to two inches.
Doublets of the 1630's were looser and fuller, with a raised waistline.
Fit of men's breeches in the 1630's were still baggy and loose but cut much straighter and
As the doublet became looser, and contained an open front, the shirt became a greater
focal point. Parts that could be seen – collars, cuffs, etc were embellished. Cassock – long sleeve, front closure coat cut on a wideA-line, usually without a waist
Buff coat – outerwear version of the doublet. Used buckskin, slits in the back, front, and
MEN'S FASHIONS 1650 – 1700
By the mid 17 century, the doublet became shorter, so