FSN 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Twill, Satin, The Sequence

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
Ryerson University
Department
Fashion
Course
FSN 101
Page:
of 8
Chapter 12: Weaving, Basic Weaves, and Fabrics
p. 256-279
Fabric- a pliable, plane-like structure that can be made into two- or three-
dimensional products that require some shaping and flexibility
Fabric quality influences
Product cost
Suitability for a target market
Aesthetic characteristics
Consumer appeal and satisfaction
Fabric Quality
Fabric quality describes freedom from defects, uniform structure and appearance,
and performance during production and in consumers’ hands- affects textile
producers, designers, retailers and consumers
- Influences product cost, suitability for a target market, aesthetic
characteristics and consumer appeal and satisfaction
- Defects: assigned a point value based on their length/size
- Fabric grading: manufacturers determine the quality level suitable for their
product line and target market
- Fabric performance strength, wrinkle, shrinkage, etc
Woven Fabrics
- All woven fabrics are made with 2 or more sets of yarns interlaced at right
angles biaxial
- 2 basic components: warp yarns and filling yarns
- Lengthwise: warp yarns/ends
- Crosswise: filling yarns/weft
- Weaving is oldest/most widely used methods of making fabric
- Characteristics: interlaced at right angles, has grain, relatively stable
The Loom
- Weaving is done on a machine called a loom
- Warp yarns held taut within the loom and filling yarns are inserted and
pushed into place to make the fabric
- During Industrial Rev, high-speed looms were developed
- Warp beam: warp yarns that are sufficient for the length, width and density
of the fabric to be woven
- Harness is a frame to hold the heddles
- Heddle is a wire with a hole or eyelet in its center through which a warp
yarn is threaded
- Shed- when the warp forms a shed, through which the filling is inserted
- Shuttles-
- Reeds- beats the filling yarn into place to make the fabric firm; the spaces
between the wires dents
- Weaving consists of the following:
1. Shedding: raising one or more harnesses to separate the warp yarns
and form a shed
2. Picking: passing the shuttle through the shed to insert the filling
3. Beating up: pushing the filling yarn into place in the fabric with the
reed
4. Take-up: winding finished fabric onto the fabric beam
- The most frequent type of commercial loom is four-harness loom
Preparing for Weaving
Winding
- Repackaged so that they can be used to weave a fabric on a specific loom
Creeling
- A large frame that holds the yarn as it wound on a warp bean
Warping/Dressing the Loom
- Each yarn is threaded through a heddle and must be parallel or it will
cause tension which makes the yarns to break
- Weave structure in fabric is determined by:
1. The order in which the warp yarns are threaded through the
harness
2. Combination of harnesses raised or lowered at a time
3. The sequence in which the harnesses are raised or lowered
Loom Advancements
Centers on:
1. Devices to weave intricate designs
2. Computers and electronic monitoring systems to increase speed, patterning and
quality repairing problems
3. Quicker and more efficient means of inserting filling yarns
4. Automatic devices to speed the take-up of woven cloth
5. Devices that facilitate and speed up changing the warp
Patterning Capabilities
- Devices that control the position of the warp yarns; can woven pictures
Computer Systems
- Computers are important in developing design tables for maximum
weavability: tightness, compactness, etc
- Computers detect errors and corrects the problem; done w/o human
operator
Loom Efficiency and Versatility
- Shuttle looms are replaced with faster, quieter and more versatile
shuttleless looms
- 4 types of shuttleless looms: air-jet, rapier, water-jet and projectile
weaves faster w/ less noise
- They are more common in developed countries and more versatile than
shuttle looms
Air-Jet Loom
- The filling yarn is premeasured and guided through a nozzle, where a
narrow jet of air sends it through the shed
- Ideal for yarn that is not too bulky/heavy
Rapier Loom
- Double-rapier loom has a metal arm called a carrier
- Measures and cuts the correct length of filling yarn
Water-Jet Loom
- High pressure jet of water to carry the filling yarn across the warp
- Fabric is wet when it comes out of loom so drying costs extra
Projectile Loom
- One projectile with grippers carries the yarn across the full width of the
shed
- Used to produce basic, specialty and technical fabrics
Multi-Width Loom
- Additional warp beans allow 2+ widths of fabric to be woven side by
side; many basic fabrics
Multi-Shed Loom
- More than one shed is formed at a time
- Shed is formed and changes when yarn carrier enters one portion of the
warp (ppm is faster)
Circular Loom
- Weave tubular fabric (pillowcases)
Triaxial Loom
- Weaves 3 sets of yarns identical in size and twist at 60 degree angles
- 2 yarn sets are warp and the other is filling; produced more quickly
- Stable in horizontal, vertical and bias directions; used for balloons, air
structures, etc
Environmental Concerns and Sustainability of Weaving
- A lot of environmental concerns connects with weaving
- Social abuses can occur in weaving mills; employees working excessive
hours, child labour, etc
- Warp yarns are treated with compounds to minimize problems with
abrasion in weaving
- Compounds are removed and reclaimed but it is not 100% efficient
- Producing better-quality fabric improves efficiency and lessens the
environmental impact
Characteristics of Woven Fabrics
Interlacing is the point at which a yarn changes its position from one side of the
fabric to the other
Warp and Filling
- Warp must withstand the high tensions of the loom and abrasion of weaving-
stronger and more uniform with higher twist
- Filling are fancy/special-function such as high-twist crepe yarns
- Different ways to differentiate between the two (p. 264)

Document Summary

Chapter 12: weaving, basic weaves, and fabrics: 256-279. Fabric- a pliable, plane-like structure that can be made into two- or three- dimensional products that require some shaping and flexibility. Fabric quality describes freedom from defects, uniform structure and appearance, and performance during production and in consumers" hands- affects textile producers, designers, retailers and consumers. Influences product cost, suitability for a target market, aesthetic characteristics and consumer appeal and satisfaction. Defects: assigned a point value based on their length/size. Fabric grading: manufacturers determine the quality level suitable for their product line and target market. Fabric performance strength, wrinkle, shrinkage, etc. All woven fabrics are made with 2 or more sets of yarns interlaced at right angles biaxial. 2 basic components: warp yarns and filling yarns. Weaving is oldest/most widely used methods of making fabric. Characteristics: interlaced at right angles, has grain, relatively stable. Weaving is done on a machine called a loom.