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Chapter 5

FSN 132 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Natural Fiber, Textile Manufacturing, Textile Industry


Department
Fashion
Course Code
FSN 132
Professor
Luann Lafrenz
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5: Textiles Fibres and Fabrics
p. 99
- Production of fibre and fabrics is the first step in manufacture of clothing,
accessories and home fashions
- They are considered primary supplies; markers of trimmings are also
primary
The Fibre Industry
- Fibre extremely fine, almost invisible to the eye is the smallest element of a
fabric; starting point
- Can be spun or twisted into continuous thread called yarn, then yarn can be
woven into fabrics
- Natural or manufactured
- Natural fibres are found in nature from plant or animal; wood pulp, air, etc
- Manufactured fibres are made in a chemist’s lab- “man made” or “synthetic”
History and Development
- Natural fibres is ancient; developed more slowly while manufactured is
recent and rapid advances
The Development of Natural Fibres
Cotton
- Most widely used of all natural fibres; seed of a cotton plant
- Primarily of cellulose, carbohydrate that lends itself to manufacture of
fibrous and paper products
- Absorb moisture quick, dry quickly, good for warm weather
- Can be grown in many colours, mostly white
- Long cotton fibres (staple) produce finest fabrics
Wool
- Forms the coat of sheep; sheep quickly grows after it’s been sheered
- Composed mostly of protein; natural insulated for warm clothes
- Natural crimp which is good for bulky yarn to trap air against cold
- Slow drying and absorbency
Silk
- Cocoon by a silkworm; forces between 2 fine streams of thick liquid
- Streams harden into filaments when contact with air;
- Breathable, luxurious
Flax
- Make linen, comes from stem of a flax plant after fibre is spun into yarn
into fabric is the product of linen
- Strongest of the vegetable fibre, absorbs and dries quickly
- Excellent fibre for warm weather; tendency to wrinkle and hard to iron
Ramie
- Woody-leafed Asian plant in China; suitable for warm-weather and
inexpensive
Hemp
- Fibrous plant, agricultural staple; apparel and home furnishings, rare and
expensive

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The Development of Manufactured Fibres
- Manufactured fibres have improve the quality of life (rayon first)
- Offers characteristics that are not in natural fibres; designers like to use them
for innovative lines
- Starts as thick liquids and the lengths are produced by forcing liquid through
tiny homes of spinnerets
- Fibres then cut into short lengths and spun into yarn (also with natural, or
chemically processed into yarn directly)
- 2 types of manufactured fibres: cellulosic and noncellulosic
Generic Names for Manufactured Fibres
- Generic names/nontrade-marked names; producers can modify composition
to produce a new fibre called a variant given a brand name by producer
- Brand names are registered at Patent Office
- Properties of fibres influence behavior of finished fabric (washability,
durability)
Microfibres
- Fibre that is 2/3 times smaller than human hair; thinnest and finest of all
manufactured fibres
- Similar to texture of silk or cashmere; used frequently with designers
Organization and Operation
Natural Fibre Industry
- Almost all cotton growers sell their product in local markets to mill or
wholesalers
- Linen, silk and ramie are imported from foreign sources
- Natural fibre industry affected by manufactured fibres; forced it to attend the
needs of their customers
- Cotton is now promoted a year-round fibre and wool is now treated to be
lightweight for year-round
- Natural fibres are treated with special finishes that give them properties of
manufactured fibres
Manufactured Fibre Industry
- Chemical companies are adaptable; built factories where companies have
found raw materials for convenient shipment
- Also can serve its own market; purchase fibres from chemical companies
Fibre Development
- Competing laboratories work to develop new products to meet these
preferences of consumers
- Textile Fibres Production Identification Act - Consumer products that use
textile fibres are required to carry labels indicating country where the fibre
was processed, generic names and % of fibre
Fibre Distribution
- Producer’s sells in one of three ways:
1. Unbranded production with no restrictions on end use
2. Branded or trademarked fibres to assure consumers their quality has been
controlled but not for the end use
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