Art History Definitions

64 views7 pages
Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
Ryerson University
Department
Fashion
Course
FSN 232
Professor
ART HISTORY 232 DEFINITIONS
Chapter 21
The Communist Manifesto
Political theory of communism, set out by Karl Marx
Marxists believed that bourgeois society had reached a period of decline, and it was time for the
working class to seize power from the capitalist class and organize society in the interests of the
majority
Realism
Primary concerns of the Realist movement in art were direct observation of society and nature,
as well as political and social satire
Palette Knife
Blunt tool used for mixing and applying paint, with a flexible steel blade
Lithography
Printmaking process in which the printing surface is a smooth stone or plate on which an image
is drawn with a crayon or some other oil based substance
Camera Obscura
The forerunner of the photographic camera
Daguerreoptypes
Mid-nineteenth century photographic process for fixing positive images on silver-coated metal
plates
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Believed that the aim of previous artists had been to achieve beauty through idealization, which
they considered to be artificial and insincere
Their own inspiration would be drawn from the "truthful crafts" (truth to nature)
Pre-Raphaelite paintings have clear edges, smooth surfaces, and precise patterns
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Chapter 22
Impressionism
Impressionism rarely responded to political events
Impressionist painters preferred genre subjects (scenes of leisure activities, entertainment, and
landscape)
Was more influences by Japanese prints, and new developments in photography
Were interested in the natural properties of light
Japonisme
The Japanese aesthetic absorbed by the West in the latter part of the nineteenth century
Modernity
Less rationalistic approaches to art
Influences by technological advances (such as photography)
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