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Chapter 21

FSN 232 Chapter Notes - Chapter 21: Gustave Courbet, Honoré Daumier, The Communist Manifesto

Course Code
FSN 232
Kimberly Wahl

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Art History - Chapter 21 March 30th, 2015
Nineteenth-Century Realism
Age of rebellion in all facets of society; depicted in art
Development of the industrial complex, iron and steel (1875)
-Factories were established, replacing crafts with manufactured goods
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist manifesto in 1848
-Same year the first conventions for women’s rights were held
In 1859 Charles Darwin published Origins of the Species in 1859
Newspapers were more widely available to the public, and inventions like the telegraph and telephone made the
speed at which information was transferred much faster
Critiques became a factor, and patronage rested mainly of museums and private collectors
French Realism
Jean-Francois Millet
Gleaners (1857) is a transition between Romanticism and Realism
-Emphasized class distinctions, which was characteristic of Realism, and a preoccupation with everyday
occurrences, which was characteristic of Romanticism
Rosa Bonheur
Horse Fair (1853) - Bonheur dissected horses in a butcher shop to get a more realistic anatomical depiction
-She received international renown as an animal painter
-She imitated men, dressing like them to achieve higher social mobility
Energetic nature of the horses and their flowing manes are indicative of romanticism
Gustave Courbet
Most directly associated with Realism; believed artists could only represent their own experience
-His realist approach to his painting is expressed in his manifesto: “Show me an angel and I’ll paint
Interior of my Studio…. (1855) has 30 figures from the intelligentsia and lower class
-The period depicted started with the February Revolution
-Romantic items on the floor: dagger, guitar, plumed hat.
It was offered to the International Exhibition of 1855 but it was rejected
-So he rented his own space and held the first one-man art show in history
Honore Daumier
Third Class Carriage with Interior of a First-Class Carriage (1862/1864 respectively)
-Loose brushwork in the third class carriage contrast with clear-cut lines in the first-class carriage
-Further illustrated by the presence of light
-- Messy vs. refined
He was not recognized as an artist until his first one man show at the age of 70
-He sustained himself otherwise by doing comics and caricatures for newspapers
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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