GEO 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Intertropical Convergence Zone, Mediterranean Climate, Cool Air

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25 Jul 2016
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Lecture 3 - Climate Systems & Climate Change
Weather: Daily atmospheric conditions of a particular place, ex temperature of a city
Climate: The average weather condition recorded over a long period of time, the pattern that persists
-Micro Climate: Small or slight variations associate with a particular region, hence climatologists have
been studying weather patterns over the year, the importance of studying is to understand temperature
variation around the world, precipitation patterns, snow fall, hail, etc
-Climate studies helps us understand patterns of ice melting, sea level rise, it forces understanding of
moisture content of soil, and also vegetation patterns around the world
-Advantage of climate studies is we can understand general crop yield in different parts of the world
Climate Systems
Designed by Wladimir Koppan
-There are over 24 major types of climates which are assigned certain numbers
-Beyond the 24 there are regional variation and from that we have local,
Tropical Rainforest Climate
-Found in equatorial regions of the world or tropical areas, and its influenced by the intertropical
convergence zone (ITCZ), a zone where you have two air masses collide along the equatorial regions
of the world, often warm air masses is forced to rise and it condenses to form rain, and it is the zone
that is characterized by heavy rainfall, because it is moist and warm, this zone results in lush
vegetation, especially board leaf plants
-Convectional rainfall (one of the three types of rainfall) is a characters of tropical rainforest region
-The Congo (west Africa) rainforest, and the Amazon (brazil) rainforest. The Amazon rainforest accounts
for 30% of biodiversity in the world. It supports large number of animal population.
-The Tropical rainforest is influenced by very high temperature, as a result, there is a rapid growth of
bacteria, and bacteria activity increases the breakdown of organic matter
-Laterite Soil: Organic matter, and it has large amount of gravels, any minerals can easily be washed
out of soil
-The lowest precipitation received is around 15cm of rainfall, and annual temperature conditions range
from 2 degrees to more than 11 degrees Celsius therefore it is really humid
Monsoon (season in arabic) Climate
-Characterized by changes of wind direction in accordance with the season
-It is also affected by the ITCZ
-During the winter season there is moisture leading air mass which blows from the indian ocean
onto the land, and that results in high rainfall. In the dry season the ITCZ is right overhead and
the brings mild rainfall
-Monsoon rainfall much of the the leading air masses is intercepted by the Himalayas
-There is a lot of rainfall in the windward side of the mountain, the leeward side experiences
lower rainfall
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-Rainfall pattern continues throughout the year except one month of lower rainfall, as a result of
that there is constant flooding and crop fields are inundated or submerged
-Costal area receives about 250cm of rainfall, and often characterized by evergreen vegetation
******Test Question: What does monsoon mean? Also know about windward and leeward side
Tropical Savanna Climate
-Often located between the equator and the tropic of cancer and Capricorn
-During the summer the conditions are characterized by low rainfall
-This zone often results in grassland vegetation, characterized by tall and short grass which are
interspaced by trees, trees are scattered all across the field
-In East Africa you see these types of trees in the tropical savanna, it is a great for wild life to
grow such
Humid Subtropical Climate
-Moist conditions all year round and often has dry winter periods
-Common in Columbia, South Carolina, and along the coast of Japan
-Affected by warm moist unstable airmass, which produces convectional rainfall over the line
-During winter fall and spring there is the convergence of two air masses of different
temperatures (maritime tropical and continental cool air mass) that results in development of
cyclones, mid latitude cyclones
-A boundary separates the two air masses, the front, spread out motion of the two air masses,
known as cyclones
-Another characteristic of this climate is they are related to the winter dry seasonal…..
Marine West Coast Climate
-Mild winters and cool summers
-Region of Pacific Canada, coast of B.C, is affected by the moist leading air mass from the
ocean which is intercepted by the cordillera ( a chain of mountain along the coast in B.C)
-Rains a lot in the windward side of the mountain, and B.C is the wettest part of Canada
-Ocean falls is the wettest part of Canada in B.C, over 4000m of rainfall annually
-In the U.S the region is influenced by cool moist and unstable air mass, which brings a lot of
rainfall, and the summers are characterized by cooler temperatures
Mediterranean Climate
-In the Arabian countries, adjacent to the mediterranean ocean
-This zone is often affected by shifting of stable of warm to hot, and dry air mass over the entire
region
-Characterized by dry summers and wet winter patterns
-Other locations affected is the canary areas (cold current)
-Affects Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, etc
****Test Questions: Know areas of cold and warm currents
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