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Chapter

chpt 7 - spatial interaction

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Department
Geography
Course
GEO 106
Professor
Maria Piccioni
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 7 - Spatial Interaction - Harder conceptual and methodological approaches to analyzing people’s behaviour – their interaction in and with space, their effects on it and its influence on them Defining Spatial Interaction (physical flows and non‐ physical flows) - The different land uses of a city (or a region/nation) are connected (or integrated) by flows o These flows can be physical or non-physical - Physical flows – involve the movement of goods, people, materials, and other tangible commodities, between the different nodes of the city along transportation channels o Ex. Delivery trucks or trains taking finished products to stores along roads or railways, or commuters going to an from work using roads or subways, or oil or sewage flowing along pipelines o This could also involve the migration of people (and their things and their cultures) from outside your city or country to inside your city or neighbourhood o Could involve the moves of people as they go through their lifecycle and make decisions about where to live (finding info on apartments, buying a house, buying a bigger house, downsizing and buying a condo) - Non-physical flows – the transmission of more intangible commodities, such as info, between notes in the city along less visible transmission channels o Ex. The flow of telephone or internet messages or radio/TV signals, either along telephone wires or through wireless transmission mediums o The flow of ideas that occurs within a classroom, or opinions through the pages of a newspaper. o As you interact with other people, this may include diffusion of ideas or new technologies - These flows are often shown using arrows to indicate the origins and destinations of people, goods, money, technologies, ideas, etc. - All flows require some type of infrastructure, and all flows: o Occur at various scales, from the individual through the neighbourhood to the city, region, country and globe o Occur in various ways, ranging from tangible things moving along tangible channels to intangible things moving along tangible channels  Collectively, this is known as spatial interaction and should be viewed as an integral part of both your life and that of the city, essential to growth, functioning and survival b/c it’s a necessary link in the process of decision making The Roles of Spatial Interaction (integration, differentiation and specialization, organize the system, agent of change) - Spatial interaction plays four basic and essential roles in the city: 1. It permits integration of the various parts of the city system b/c the parts are spatially separated and require interaction for each part to do its job 2. It permits differentiation and specialization within the system, b/c if you have the means to interact, then each part of the system (residential areas, shopping malls, downtown) can do what they do best in contributing to the overall complexity and function of the city  you can separate those parts which require separating, like noxious industrial work nodes from residential areas 3. It acts to organize the system, since the magnitude and nature of the flows create and define the hierarchical levels that exist in the system  Ex. Traffic flow along hwy 401 defines it as a major freeway, as compared to traffic flow along the arterials and neighbourhood streets within the city. So we have a hierarchically organized system of traffic flows, controlling who goes where and how, you can’t ride your bicycle on the QEW (even though you may wish you could when stuck in traffic) 4. It acts as an agent of change since it provides the means by which commodities (new fashions) and ideas/opinions (we need a new government) to move freely to all individuals within the system George Kingsley Zipf (1949) Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort Conceptualizing Movement - Edward L. Ullman Model (complementarity, intervening opportunity, transferability) o The Ullman model proposes that there are 3 conditions required for interaction to take place: 1. Complementarity – a supply and demand relationship must exist for interaction to take place. Ex. I have ice cream to sell, and you want to buy ice cream so you come to my store to buy ice cream. Or I live in area X and my job is in Z so I need to travel from X to Z to go to work. This provides the “reason” for interaction to occur o Pull factor: better climates and better job opportunities encouraging un-and under-employed persons to move o Push factor: conflict and invasion encouraging people to move out of an area 2. Intervening opportunity – will only work if there is no intervening opportunity between the points of supply and demand, from which demand can serve. Ex. You may decide to buy ice cream at a closer store than mine 3. Transferability – if an interaction is to occur, there must be transferability between the points of supply and demand, the perceived net reward associated with the interaction has to exceed the associated movement costs. So, the degree of interaction is proportional to the ease with which movement occurs – in other words, the friction of distance plays a role. Ex. If it would tae me 3 hours to travel from my home to area Z for the job I want, I may decide that the journey to work is too long and not take the job (on the other hand, I could move closer to the job) o Ullman’s 3 conditions for interaction could be reduced to 2 related and inverse factors: 1. Complementarity represents a generator of interaction, whereas… 2. Both intervening opportunity and transferability represent constraints to interaction - When exploring how interaction takes place using these 2 derivatives of Ullman’s model, we can apply a variant of the physical law of gravity to develop a mathematical model of interaction that can be used to given a quantitative estimate of the degree of interaction taking place  gravity modeling Waldo R. Tobler (1970) First Law of Geography “All things are related, but near things are more related than far things” –Friction of Distance– - Figure 7.2 Distance Decay Revisited pp. 176 o Interaction between things declines with increasing distance - Figure 7.3 Distance Decay and Transportation Model pp. 176 o Different modes of transportation are used for different types of goods and for different travel distances o Light trucks are used for short trips – transporting goods within metropolitan areas, while trains are used to move goods with much greater distances Activity Space and Daily Travel ?? - Distance decay curves are a useful way of exploring the spatial aspects of people’s behaviour - Though general distance decay curves may exist for populations, for individuals the curves may be irregular, reflecting what they know about the city (their mental maps) and their established activity patterns (what they do) o Figure 7.4 Distance Decay and Frequency of Trips pp. 177 - Figure 7.5 Distance Decay for Types of Social Trips pp. 178 o Curves may differ for different types of activity. Social trips differ depending on who it is you are visiting – neighbours, friends, relatives - Figure 7.6 Distance Decay Curves for Different Times of Day pp. 178 o Activity patterns may also change
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