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chpt 11 - Groups of People in Cities.docx

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Ryerson University
GEO 106
Maria Piccioni

Chapter 11: Groups of People in Cities: Who are your Neighbours? - Environments can be Harder (the concrete we walk on) and Softer (our perceptions of other people) - Figure 11.1 Form and Process in the City pp. 265 - Industrial or residential land uses are fairly evident to the eye – they’re harder b/c they are visible - Harder – land use – economy theory - Mental imagery and sense of place are in the eye and heart of the beholder, a personalized view we create as individuals to store spatial info of use to us - Softer – mental images – cognition & perception - Process  economic theory explains most of our decision making in 1 dimension: how we allocated our resources, who gets what, and what they do with it o Perception and the cognitive mechanisms that process those perceptions, even though they may have general similarities within groups of people, are largely unique and individual Hard / Soft Aspects of Form and Process ‐ Urban Social Geography - 1 urban social geographical approach is to investigate urban ecological structure - 3 methodologies to do this: 1. Ecological approach: uses concepts from ecology to describe and explain urban processes 2. Social area analysis (SAA) that attempts to measure and map urbanization processes 3. Factorial urban ecology that uses factorial analysis to explore social dimensions of urban areas Ecological Approach (EA) / Urban Ecology - 2 important points about the urban ecological approach are: o It concentrated on the characteristics of people in certain places and the tensions and conflicts at the boundaries of those communities that gave rise to succession and dominance among the groups, changing the nature of the places o It applied to groups of people, rather than individuals, so it could rely on census data collected for small areas - One of the basic postulates of the ecological model is that “invading” groups will either be repulsed, will replace, or will be assimilated into the existing community, which will give rise to specific spatial patterns among the various groups of the city - The process was developed into the Assimilation Model, which proposes that as new groups move into and around a city, their either repulsed by or will replace existing groups, or they will be assimilated o If they are assimilated, the degree to which the assimilation occurs depends on the related factors of the degree of distinctiveness of the new group o The spatial outcomes of the assimilation process can range from complete dispersal into the host group, to ghettoization and the segregation of the new group o The model was premised principally upon the degree of similarity between the ethnic characteristics of the host group and the new group o In essence it describes 1 social dimension of the city – ethnicity ‐ Figure 11.2 The Assimilation Model pp. 267 o Suggests there are 3 things that happen when you decide to move Social Area Analysis (SAA) (social status, family status, ethnic status) - Social area analysis: an attempt to give the social geography of the city an underlying theory and an empirical basis using data and analysis - The premise of SAA – that there was a measurable and visible social structure to the city – grew out of the sociological discussion of the process of urbanization o Urbanization – urban goes up, rural goes down b/c rural moves to the city, which is urbanization, and counter urbanization is the opposite. - SAA proposed that a city couldn’t be understood w/o consideration of the society that created it o Since society evolved during the process of urbanization from a predominantly rural agricultural one to its current urban industrial manifestation, then city structure would have also evolved due to
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