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chpt 8 - Designs for Human Activities.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEO 106
Professor
Maria Piccioni
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8: Designs for Human Activities Adaptive and Integrative Environments - Places and the qualities and design of those places can help or hinder our activities as individuals (adaptive environments) - Places and the qualities and design of those places can help or hinder interactions between and among individuals (integrative environments) Adaptive Environments - The study of adaptive environments looks at how fixed, semi-fixed, and informal features can help or hinder the activity of individuals - Fixed features act as constraints – can’t walk through walls, must use doors o Fixed features may define who belongs where – sidewalk is for pedestrians. - Streetscapes – Porteus evaluated how the street environment is used - the street, curb and sidewalk are all fixed features. On sidewalks people cooperate in order to not collide. They adopt behavioural rues of place and adjust their walking style. o Figure 8.1 Maximizing Panhandling Income in Santiago, Chile pp. 208  Similarly, proxemic features are assessed in terms of helping or hindering panhandling.  Concealed locations, while safe, generate little business due to their low profile. Sidewalk exposure locations, while visible, are irritants to pedestrians and physically less safe. Most panhandlers choose wall-side locations. The ambulatory panhandlers were blind, elderly preferred concealed locations, physically disabled preferred exposed locations - Living spaces – similarly, fixed architectural features (And the dictates of the contextual environment, which suggests what furniture is appropriate in what room) often constraint he arrangement of semi-fixed furniture. o Figure 8.2 Sleeping Around (Inadvertently Topohilia) pp. 209  Kuper found that the fixed features in duplexes forced people to place furniture in the same positions. Party walls were very thin, and the similar furniture position meant bedheads were together across a party wall letting people hear everything. - Workplaces – fixed features can influence work. Lack of access to windows may increase work stress. o Figure 8.3 Influence of Fixed Features on Hospital Work Environments pp. 
 209  A hospital was purposefully built to study the effects of design on work stress. Each wing of the hospital had a diff. floor plan and staff rotated throughout the hospital. The plans were: single-corridor, double-corridor, and radial. The radial plan generated the fewest accidents, and nurses preferred it. It also saved them a lot of money Integrative Environments - The study of integrative environments looks at how fixed, semi-fixed and informal features can help or hinder social interaction - Sociopetality is the quality of the arrangement of fixed, semi-fixed and informal features that encourages and fosters the development of stable interpersonal relationships - Sociofugality is the quality of the arrangement of fixed, semi-fixed, and informal features of a space that discourages or alienates interpersonal relationships. In particular, the semi-fixed features can be altered to make environments more sociopetal or more sociofugal. Robert Sommers Study (1969) - Sommer’s nursing home study: o He was asked to investigate why in a new nursing home with the latest medical and social amenities, the patients were not doing very well. Physical and mental illnesses among the elderly were high, and there was very little socializing taking place. o Sommer’s investigation of the internal proxemics of the space led him to conclude that much of the problem stemmed from the inadvertent creation of a sociofugal space in the socializing areas of the home ‐ Figure 8.4 Sociopetality and Sociofugality pp. 211 st - 1 arrangement of furniture – good for admin. Due to easy cleaning, access to and for patients, neat and tidy, easy to monitor, was sociofugal b/c patients couldn’t form social groups or hold face-to-face convos. – Discouraged socialization - 2nd arrangement – allowed social activities to occur and was based on how the patients arranged the furniture themselves – encouraged socialization – sociopetal - Occurred b/c residents had control over the semi-fixed features of the space ‐ Figure 8.5 Personal Space – Table Seating Preferences pp. 212 - Students will arrange themselves in classrooms and study areas in specific patterns depending on if they want to participate or avoid it. - Do tis based on whether they wish to cooperate, converse, compete, or co-act ‐ Figure 8.6 Student Participation in the Typical Classroom pp. 212 - Likewise, they do their same for classrooms, seminars and studying. Students in front and middle participate the most, back pay least attention and have high absenteeism ‐ Figure 8.7 Student Participation and Instructor Location pp. 213 - In seminars, the person at the opposite end of the table from instructor/person with best eye contact with instructor participates the most - Person in front of instructor is likely student leader ‐ Figure 8.8 Territorial Defence at the Study Table pp. 214 
 - Best defensive position (able to maintain the greatest amount of space once someone else sits at the table) in the library - Best offensive (able to prevent anyone from sitting at the table the longest) Creating Neighbourhoods – Urban Neighbourhood Planning - Ebenezer Howard in Garden Cities of Tomorrow suggested urban design that incorporated the benefits of the city (economic growth, job opportunities, entertainment) with the benefits of the countryside (clean air, water, sunshine, beauty of nature, low rents) suggesting that cities should be planned to provide healthy-economical, social and physical – environments (The three “magnets) - Figure 8.9 Howard’s Three Magnets pp. 215
 o Three magnets: town, town-country, country - Figure 8.10 Detail of Howard’s Ideal City pp. 215 o His city designs showed a multi-centred agglomeration of interconnected towns surrounded by greenbelts - Perry suggested nei
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