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chpt 9 - Urbanization ‐ A Historical Diversion .docx

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GEO 106
Maria Piccioni

Chapter 9: Urbanization ‐ A Historical Diversion The Nature of Urban - Half the world’s population is classified as urbanised - More industrialized countries (MDCs) – avg. of 76% of pop. Is urbanized and in some over 80% - Lesser industrialized countries (LDCs) – avg. of 41% of people live in urban areas - You can define urban by numbers, way of life and type of activity - Number you need to qualify for urban – population of the city (number should reflect space) - Different people have different standards of minimum and maximum urban numbers - Urban is more economic hubs, base, service economy while rural is filled with farming and agriculture - Defining Urban with Numbers - Defining Urban with Type of Activity - Defining Urban with Way of Life 
 Rural Urban Continuum - Connected to the north due to recreational activities – cottage, camping, beach - City, urban, rural, country side, suburb Urban Growth vs. Urbanization - The distinction between urban growth and urbanization is important b/c it marks the difference between two distinctly different urban processes and historical trends. - Urban growth: occurs when rates of growth between urban and rural populations are about the same over long term and over wide areas - Urbanisation: occurs when urban growth rates outstrip rural growth rates through some combination of natural increase in population and rural to urban migration o Refers to the dramatic change in the rate of growth of urban populations o Urbanization curves tend to be represented by a logistic or “S” curve comprised of three stages: initial, growth and terminal  The stages are described by rates of growth (how fast a population is becoming urban) and levels of growth (what share of a population is urban)  Figure 9.2 Growth Stages of Urbanization pp. 227 
 - Figure 9.1 Urban Growth versus Urbanization pp. 226 - Urbanization graph: As rural growth rates decline, the urban growth rates increase eventually reaching a terminal stage where they remain constant. - Urban growth graph: Urban, Rural, and Total growth rate stays constant Class notes: - Primary economies dominated by agriculture - Secondary – manufacturing industry – gr.12 diploma – factory, warehouse, mall - Treasury/service economy – F.I.R.E - “third waves – book” – uni – offices, financial district, hospital - Knowledge-based economy – green economy – PhD, 1-2 degrees - Ground – telework, email, cellphone - X-axis = time, y-axis = workforce/employment - Green jobs– IT, engineers, environmentally related jobs - Primary industry – need more kids to keep up agriculture - Manufacturing – families becoming richer, have more time, have a couple of kids (2-4), cost money to put them in school, move into cities - Treasury – people don’t have time or money to start families, work towards being successful, 1- 2 kids - Developed countries have inverse pyramids Urbanization Processes - Urbanization is a process that alters the spatial structure of a notion, both in terms of its city structure and rural structure - Not only do the numbers or urban people and urban places increase, but the size, complexity and form of the cities chance, as do the characteristics and behaviour of their inhabitants o Driving these changes are: 1. Economic transformation  Cities are points of intense economic activity on a landscape, where economic activity leads to innovation, invention, the creation of products and jobs, the division of labour, and generally increased personal and national incomes  Cities are concentrated markets for goods and services, and they rapidly become poles of attraction for manufacturing industries and their support service sector
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