Spatical concepts and spatial dynamics
The nature of geography –
Spatial interaction, area differentiation, spatial organization
Cultural relativity and cognitive filtering
The concept of truth is relative
The Research Praxis
Space, location, place, site ,situation
Attributes of space: distance, direction, area
What, where, why, who, when, how
An individual needs to be numerate and articulate (qualitative) and very descriptive in your
For instance, if I have to travel from here to where, how long and what the distance in
Pattison’s four traditions(1964):
Asthenosphere weak layer
1. Area studies- regional geography
The study of a region’s characteristic and attributes
2. Human-Land- environmental geography
How humans change and are changed by their environment
Ellen Churchill Sample- moon is the product of the earth
Environmental determinism- environment controls our condition, the type of
occupation we engaged in
Possibilism devoted by Vidal de la blache - the ability to transform the environment,
environemt influences our action and thinking.
3. Spatial-location geography
The analysis of general patterns in location, space, place, distance, direction and
Abstract – prescribe what things should be
4. Earth studies- physical geography
The study of the lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere
Week 3 Cultural relativity and cognitive filtering
The story of Rerabawa.
Malinowski and cultural relativity.
Making oatmeal in the jungle
Rice is nice but bread instead.
Cognition is the mental mechanism through which we process information and includes perception,
memory, recall, language, decision making, action etc.
Cognitive- personality, geodemographics, ability, socioeconomics, cultures.
The research praxis
What is it, where is it located, when is it from ,who develops it, how, why
Began with description, Ideographic, explanation, nomothetic
The research steps
Describe’ what does it look like? What happened? Descriptive tools and observation
Explain- why does it look that way? Why did it happen? Theory, hypothesis and concept
Predict- what is going to happened? Forecasting and monitoring.
Prescribe – what can we do about it ? need s assessment and planning.
Toronto to Kabul:
Time distance= 13 hrs
Cognitive distance=not far enough
Cultural difference= world’s apart
Social distance= much different.
Distance decay – the most fundamental of spatial constructs The interaction between two objects declines with distance between them.
Tobler(1970) Said everything is related to everything else. The closer things are more
related than distance things.
Transferring the geometric properties of a sphere onto a flat map requires different projections for
You cannot, with a single projection, preserve all attributes: direction, area, and distance.
Sale and chaos
The big picture about and small