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GEO 110 (47)
Chapter 12


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GEO 110
David Atkinson

CHAPTER 16- THE OCEANS, COASTAL PROCESSES & LANDFORMS GLOBALOCEANS AND SEAS Chemical Composition of Seawater • Water = solvent = dissolves 57/92 elements in nature • Seawater = most elements and their compounds found = SOLUTION • Salinity = concentration of dissolved solids per volume Ocean Chemistry • Is a result of exchanges among seawater, the atmosphere, minerals, bottom sediments, and living organisms. • 99% of elements = chlorine, sodium, agnesium, sulphur, calcium, potassium, bromine • Dissolved gasses also present Average Salinity = 35 parts per thousand • Subtropics – high evaporation – higher salinity (more concentration) • brine: water that exceeds average 35 BRACKISH: water less than average Physical structure of ocean • 3 layers, mixing zone (2%), thermocline(18% or more than 1km deep, Deep cold zone (80% or from 1-1.5km to the ocean floor) • 4 elements vary with ocean depth average temperature: high to low salinity high to low dissolved carbon dioxide less to more dissolved oxygen more to lower • Mixing layer – warmed by solar insolation, and solutes blended rapidly • Thermocline transition zone – decreasing temp gradient, lacks motion of surface • Deep cold zone – 0 degrees – water does not freeze due to salinity COASTAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS Inputs to coastal environment  solar energy, atmospheric winds (generate ocean currents), climatic regimes, nature of coastal rock (determine rates of erosion), human activities The Coastal Environment and Sea Level • Littoral zone = coastal environment • Spans some land and some water • Land = to highest waterline that occurs on the shore during storm • Seaward = extends to where water is too deep for storm waves to move sediment on the seafloor (usually 60m in depth • Shoeline – contact line between the sea and the land • Coast – goes inland from the high tide line to the first MAJOR landform change • Since ocean level changes littoral zone changes • Sea level changes daily with tides and lt with climate, tectonic plate movements & glactiation • Mean Sea Level (MSL): based on average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over many years. Changes in Sea Levels • 50% - warmer water temperatures exand = higher sea levelAND 50% = losses of glacial mass and icecaps in ice sheets of Greenland and antartica COASTAL SYSTEMACTIONS Scene of tidal fluctuations, winds, waves, ocean currents and impact of storms TIDES • Complex daily oscillations in sea level • Tides rise (flood) and fall (ebb) shoreline moving in and out causes changes that affed sediment erosion and transportation Causes of Tides • Produced by gravitational pull by the sun and moon. Moon =more cuz its closer • Fluid and solid surfaces face “stretching” • Gravity = attraction between two bodies inertia = stay still if not moving or go in the direction that it is moving in • Earths side facing the moon or sun = pull -far side= stronger inertia • Produces two opposing tidal BULGES earth rotates, bulges occur in driffernt area most regions = 2 hightides (FLOOD TIDES) and two low tides (EBB TIDES)  difference in height = TIDALRANGE • Spring tides: greatest tidal range when sun and moon in opposition • Neap tide: smaller tidal range WAVES • Friction between moving air (wind) and the ocean surface generates unulations of water call
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