Textbook Notes (368,651)
Canada (162,033)
Geography (220)
GEO 110 (47)
Chapter 12

chap12

5 Pages
72 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Geography
Course
GEO 110
Professor
David Atkinson
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 16- THE OCEANS, COASTAL PROCESSES & LANDFORMS GLOBALOCEANS AND SEAS Chemical Composition of Seawater • Water = solvent = dissolves 57/92 elements in nature • Seawater = most elements and their compounds found = SOLUTION • Salinity = concentration of dissolved solids per volume Ocean Chemistry • Is a result of exchanges among seawater, the atmosphere, minerals, bottom sediments, and living organisms. • 99% of elements = chlorine, sodium, agnesium, sulphur, calcium, potassium, bromine • Dissolved gasses also present Average Salinity = 35 parts per thousand • Subtropics – high evaporation – higher salinity (more concentration) • brine: water that exceeds average 35 BRACKISH: water less than average Physical structure of ocean • 3 layers, mixing zone (2%), thermocline(18% or more than 1km deep, Deep cold zone (80% or from 1-1.5km to the ocean floor) • 4 elements vary with ocean depth average temperature: high to low salinity high to low dissolved carbon dioxide less to more dissolved oxygen more to lower • Mixing layer – warmed by solar insolation, and solutes blended rapidly • Thermocline transition zone – decreasing temp gradient, lacks motion of surface • Deep cold zone – 0 degrees – water does not freeze due to salinity COASTAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS Inputs to coastal environment  solar energy, atmospheric winds (generate ocean currents), climatic regimes, nature of coastal rock (determine rates of erosion), human activities The Coastal Environment and Sea Level • Littoral zone = coastal environment • Spans some land and some water • Land = to highest waterline that occurs on the shore during storm • Seaward = extends to where water is too deep for storm waves to move sediment on the seafloor (usually 60m in depth • Shoeline – contact line between the sea and the land • Coast – goes inland from the high tide line to the first MAJOR landform change • Since ocean level changes littoral zone changes • Sea level changes daily with tides and lt with climate, tectonic plate movements & glactiation • Mean Sea Level (MSL): based on average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over many years. Changes in Sea Levels • 50% - warmer water temperatures exand = higher sea levelAND 50% = losses of glacial mass and icecaps in ice sheets of Greenland and antartica COASTAL SYSTEMACTIONS Scene of tidal fluctuations, winds, waves, ocean currents and impact of storms TIDES • Complex daily oscillations in sea level • Tides rise (flood) and fall (ebb) shoreline moving in and out causes changes that affed sediment erosion and transportation Causes of Tides • Produced by gravitational pull by the sun and moon. Moon =more cuz its closer • Fluid and solid surfaces face “stretching” • Gravity = attraction between two bodies inertia = stay still if not moving or go in the direction that it is moving in • Earths side facing the moon or sun = pull -far side= stronger inertia • Produces two opposing tidal BULGES earth rotates, bulges occur in driffernt area most regions = 2 hightides (FLOOD TIDES) and two low tides (EBB TIDES)  difference in height = TIDALRANGE • Spring tides: greatest tidal range when sun and moon in opposition • Neap tide: smaller tidal range WAVES • Friction between moving air (wind) and the ocean surface generates unulations of water call
More Less

Related notes for GEO 110

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit