Chapter 1: Questioning Globalization
Septembe 15, 2008 the 4 largest investment bank Lehman Brothers collapsed.
o Biggest global economic crisis since 1920s
o Neoliberal, free market ideology (Washington Consensus)
o 1) Refers to actual structural changes that are occurring in the way the global
economy is organized and integrated
o 2) Neoliberal freemarket ideology of the globalization project.
19 century – Karl Marx
What happens in one part of the world is affected by events happening in other parts of
Revolution of electronic communications that spread info.
Things we use in our daily lives derive from geography of production, distribution and
consumption whose scale’s global and choreography intricate.
Products with complex geography: being made in different countries and then assembled
somewhere else – label of origin has no meaning anymore
Most obvious indicators of change are those that affect daily activities: making a living
acquiring necessities of life, providing for children to sustain their future.
Industrial countries face fear; financial crisis, technological change and global shifts in
location of economic activities are affecting employment prospects.
Current waves of concern about outsourcing and offshoring of jobs in IT service
More general fear that manufacturing jobs being sucked into a newly emergent China or
other emerging economies
Spectres of global climate change and energy uncertainties raise bigger questions for the
Gap between rich and poor; Third world countries like Africa, South Asia, Latin America
Global protest movements: explosion of street demonstrations at international political
meetings, the WTO, the G8 and G20.
Globalization proceeding too quickly – Developed countries, too slowly and unfairly –
Global economy – embedded in social, cultural, and political processes and institutions
and imbued with economic values.
Hyperglobalists: argue that we live in a borderless world in which the national is no
o Globalization is the new economic (& cultural and political) order
o Nation states are no longer meaningful actors or economic units in which
consumer tastes and cultures are homogenized and satisfied through the provision
of standardize global products created by global corporations which no allegiance
to place or community.
o The global is claimed to be the natural order an inevitable state of affaits in wh