GMS Chapter 2: Management Learning Past to Present
Classical Management Approaches
Classical approaches share a common assumption: people at work act in a rational
manner that is primarily driven by economic concerns.
Scientific Management: Emphasizes careful selection and training of workers
and supervisory support.
- Frederick W. Taylor published The principals of Scientific Management
- Four guiding action principals
1) Develop for every job a science that includes motion, standardized work
implements, and proper working conditions.
2) Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
3) Carefully train workers to do the job and give them proper incentives to
cooperate with the job “science”.
4) Support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the
way as they go about their jobs
- Motion Study: is the science of reducing a task to its basic physical
Administrative Principals: Henry Fayol published Administrative Industrial et
Generale. The book outlines his views on proper management that he felt
should be taught to all aspiring managers. His 14 principals are as follows.
1) Division of labor- Specialization of work will result in continuous
improvements in skills and methods.
2) Authority- Managers and workers need to understand that managers
have the right to give orders.
3) Discipline- Behavior needs to be grounded in obedience and derived form
respect. There will be no slacking or bending of rules.
4) Unity od Command- Each employee should have one, and only one,
5) Unity of Direction- The leader generates a single plan, and all play their
part in executing that plan.
6) Subordination of individual interests- While at work, only work issues
should be undertaken or considered.
7) Remuneration- All should receive fair payment for their work; employees
are valuable and not simply an expense.
8) Centralization- While recognizing the difficulties in large organizations,
decisions are primarily made from the top.
9) Scalar Chain- (line of authority)- Organizations must have clear, formal
chains of command running from the top to the bottom of the
10)Order- There is a place for everything, and all things should be in their
11)Equity- Managers should be kind and fair. 12)Personnel Tenure- Unnecessary turnover is to be avoided, and there
should be lifetime employment for good workers.
13)Initiative- Undertaken work with zeal and energy.
14)Esprit de corps- Work to build harmony and cohesion among personnel.
- Fayol identified the following five “rules” or “duties”, whicj closely
resemble the four functions of management- planning, organizing,
controlling and leading.
1) Foresight: to complete a plan of action for the future.
2) Organization: To provide and mobilize resources to implement the
3) Command: To lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work
toward the plan.
4) Coordination: to fit diverse efforts together and to ensure information
is shared and problems are solved.
5) Control: To make sure things happen according to plan and take
necessary corrective action.
Bureaucracy is a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order
and legitimate authority.
o Max Weber- A German whose insights were had a major impact on the
field of management, and the sociology of organizations
o The defining characteristics of Websters’ bureaucratic organizations
are as follows.
- Clear division of labor: jobs are well defined, and workers become highly
skilled at performing them.
- Clear hierarchy of authority: Authority and responsibility are well
defined for each position and each position requires a higher level one.
- Formal rules and procedures: Written guidelines direct behavior and
decisions in jobs, and written files are kept for historical record.
- Impersonality: Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly
applied, with no one receiving preferential treatment.
- Careers based on merit: Workers are selected and promoted on ability,
competency and performance and managers are career employees of the
o Disadvantages to bureaucracy:
- Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
- Slowness in handling problems
- Rigidity in the face of shifting customer or client needs
- Resistance to change
- Employee apathy
Behavioral Management Approaches Maintain that people are social and self - actualizing. People at work are assumed to
seek satisfying social relationships, respond to group pressures, and search for
Follett’s Organizations an Communities
- The work of Mary Parker Follett
- Part of transition from classical thinking to behavioral thinking.
- Follett views organizations as “communities” in which managers, and
workers should labor in harmony without one party dominating the
- Her groups were mechanisms were thorugh which diverse individuals
combine their talents for greater good.
- She believed that a mangers job was to help people in organizations
cooperate with each other and achieve an integration of interests.
The Hawthorn Studies: a scientific management perspective and sought to
determine how economic incentives and physical conditions of the
workplace effected the output of workers.
- Test Room Studies: Elton Mayo and his colleagues concluded that the new
“social setting” created for workers in the test room accounted for
- Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations and group processes: Groups
can have strong negative as well as positive influences on individual
- The hawthorn effect: is the tendency of persons singled out for specific
attention to perform as expected.
- The human relations movement: suggested that managers using good
human relations will achieve good productivity.
- Organizational b