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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Sui Sui

Chapter 4/ Lecture 3 Organizational environments and cultures 1. What is the external environment of organizations? • What is competitive advantage? o A core competency that clearly sets an organization apart from competitors and gives it an advantage over them in the marketplace o Allows an organization to deal with market and environmental forces better than its competitors. o Products, pricing, customer service, cost efficiency, quality… • The general environment of an organization; all conditions in the external environment that form a background context for managerial decision making: o Economic (health) o Technological o Socio-cultural o Natural environment o Legal-Political • The specifiic (task) environment includes important stakeholders such as: o Customers o Regulators o Suppliers o Investors owners o Competitors • Figure 4.1 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS OF VALUE CREATION FOR KEY CONSTITUENCIES OF A BUSINESS FIRM: AN OPEN-SYSTEMS APPROACH. • Environmental uncertainty : a lack of complete information about the environment o Complexity o Rate of change • Figure 4.2 dimensions of uncertainty in organizational environments 2. What is a customer-driven organization: www.notesolution.com • External and internal customers • What do customers want? o High quality, low price, on time delivery and service • What are the key customer service lessons? o Protect reputation for quality products o Treat customers right • Figure 4.3 • Customer relationship management: establishes and maintains high standards of customer service in order to strategically build lasting relationships with and add value to customers • Supply chain management: is the strategic management of all operations relating to an organization’s resource suppliers. • • Case: Who makes the Apple iPod? • The company outsources the entire manufacture of the device. They only do final assembly • What about the 451 parts that goes into the iPod? Where are they made and by who? o Hard drive(HDD): China, Philippines o HDD: inputs: China, Philippines, Japan, Thailand, Singapore o Flash memory: Korea, china o Display panels and modules: Japan rd • In 2006, apples stores 1,785; other retailers 3675; 3 party online sales 650 • • 3. What is a quality-driven organization? • Quality organizations understand and respond to customer expectations of quality products and services • Total quality management (TQM) www.notesolution.com o Quality principles are integral part of organizations strategic: continuous improvement and meeting customers’ needs (doing things right.. the first time) • Crosby’s “four absolutes” of management for total quality control: o Quality means conformance to standards; workers must know exactly what conformance standards they must meet o Quality comes from defect prevention, not defect correction; be proactive. o Quality as a performance standard must mean defect-free work o Quality saves money. • Quality and continuous improvement o W. Edwards Deming emphasized: Constant innovation Use of statistical methods Training in the fundamentals of quality assurance o Continuous improvement: involves always searching for new ways to improve work quality and performance. o Quality circles: small group of workers that meet periodically to discuss ways of improving the quality of products or services. • • • • Quality, technology, and design: o Lean production: uses technologies to streamline systems and allow work to be performed with fewer workers and smaller inventories o Flexible manufacturing: allows processes to be changes quickly and efficiently to produce different products or modifications to existing ones o Agile manufacturing/mass customization: organizations are able to make
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