Chapter 13: Leading
THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership: The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important
Contemporary leadership challenges:
o Shorter time frames for accomplishing things.
o Expectations for success on the first attempt, there are no second chances.
o Complex, ambiguous, and multidimensional problems.
o Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term demands.
Leadership and vision
Vision: A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the
present state of affairs (it is a clear sense of the future).
Visionary leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an
understanding of how to get there.
Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership:
o Challenge the process: encourage innovation and support people who have
o Show enthusiasm: to inspire others, others must see enthusiasm in you.
o Help others to act: be a team player.
o Set the example: set an example of how others should act.
o Celebrate achievements: bring emotion into the workplace.
Power and influence
Power: Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things
happen the way you want.
o Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good
rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction.
Two sources of managerial power:
o Position power: based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s
hierarchy of authority.
Sources of position power:
o Reward power: offer something of value to influence others
o Coercive power: Capability to punish or withhold positive
o Legitimate power: Organizational position or status confers
the right to control those in subordinate positions
o Personal power: based on the unique personal qualities that a person
brings to the leadership situation.
• Sources of personal power:
o Expert power: Capacity to influence others because of one’s
knowledge and skills.
www.notesolution.com o Referent power: Capacity to influence others because they
admire you and want to identify positively with you.
Turning Power into Influence
Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all sources of power.
Use of reward power or legitimate power produces temporary compliance.
Use of coercive power produces, temporary compliance, often accompanied
Use of expert power or referent power has the most enduring results and
Keys to Building Managerial Power
There is no substitute for expertise.
Likable personal qualities are very important.
Effort and hard work breed respect.
Personal behavior must support expressed values.
Power and influence are affected by workplace structures and networks:
Centrality: managers gain power by having networks and getting involved
with the information that flows within them.
Criticality: to gain power, managers must take good care of others who are
dependent on them.
Visibility: become known as an influential person in the organization.
Managers gain power by doing their job well.
Ethics and the limits to power
Chester Bernard’s Acceptance Theory of Authority
o For a leader to achieve true influence, the other person must:
Truly understand the directive.
Feel capable of carrying out the directive.
Believe the directive is in the organization’s best interests.
Believe the directive is consistent with personal values.
Leadership and Empowerment
Empowerment: the process through which managers enable and help others
to gain power and achieve influence.
Effective leaders empower others by providing them with:
LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND BEHAVIOURS
Search for leadership traits:
Drive: high energy, display initiative
www.notesolution.com Self-confidence: trust themselves, confidence in their abilities
Creativity: creative and original in their thinking
Cognitive ability: have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information
Business knowledge: know their industry and technical information
Motivation: influence others
Flexibility: adapt to the needs of followers and demands of situations
Honesty and integrity: trustworthy, honest, predictable and dependable
Focus on leadership behaviours:
o Plans and defines work to be done.
o Assigns task responsibilities.
o Sets clear work standards.
o Urges task completion.
o Monitors performance results.
o Acts warm and supportive toward followers.
o Develops social rapport with followers.
o Respects the feelings of followers.
o Is sensitive to followers’ needs.
o Shows trust in followers.
Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
Classic leadership styles:
Autocratic style: Emphasizes task over people, keeps authority and
information within the leader’s tight control, and acts in a unilateral
Laissez-faire style: Shows little concern for task, lets the group make
decisions, and acts with a “do the best you can and don’t bother me”
Democratic style: Committed to task and people, getting things done while
sharing information, encouraging participation in decision making, and
helping people develop skills and competencies.
www.notesolution.com CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model
Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to
perform in a given situation. This is different compared to Fielder’s mode