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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Leading

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Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Shavin Malhotra

Chapter 13: Leading THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP Leadership: The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. Contemporary leadership challenges: o Shorter time frames for accomplishing things. o Expectations for success on the first attempt, there are no second chances. o Complex, ambiguous, and multidimensional problems. o Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term demands. Leadership and vision Vision: A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs (it is a clear sense of the future). Visionary leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there. Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership: o Challenge the process: encourage innovation and support people who have ideas. o Show enthusiasm: to inspire others, others must see enthusiasm in you. o Help others to act: be a team player. o Set the example: set an example of how others should act. o Celebrate achievements: bring emotion into the workplace. Power and influence Power: Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want. o Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction. Two sources of managerial power: o Position power: based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s hierarchy of authority. Sources of position power: o Reward power: offer something of value to influence others o Coercive power: Capability to punish or withhold positive outcomes o Legitimate power: Organizational position or status confers the right to control those in subordinate positions o Personal power: based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation. • Sources of personal power: o Expert power: Capacity to influence others because of one’s knowledge and skills. www.notesolution.com o Referent power: Capacity to influence others because they admire you and want to identify positively with you. Turning Power into Influence Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all sources of power. Use of reward power or legitimate power produces temporary compliance. Use of coercive power produces, temporary compliance, often accompanied by resentment. Use of expert power or referent power has the most enduring results and generates commitment. Keys to Building Managerial Power There is no substitute for expertise. Likable personal qualities are very important. Effort and hard work breed respect. Personal behavior must support expressed values. Power and influence are affected by workplace structures and networks: Centrality: managers gain power by having networks and getting involved with the information that flows within them. Criticality: to gain power, managers must take good care of others who are dependent on them. Visibility: become known as an influential person in the organization. Managers gain power by doing their job well. Ethics and the limits to power Chester Bernard’s Acceptance Theory of Authority o For a leader to achieve true influence, the other person must: Truly understand the directive. Feel capable of carrying out the directive. Believe the directive is in the organization’s best interests. Believe the directive is consistent with personal values. Leadership and Empowerment Empowerment: the process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence. Effective leaders empower others by providing them with: o Information. o Responsibility. o Authority. o Trust. LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND BEHAVIOURS Search for leadership traits: Drive: high energy, display initiative www.notesolution.com Self-confidence: trust themselves, confidence in their abilities Creativity: creative and original in their thinking Cognitive ability: have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information Business knowledge: know their industry and technical information Motivation: influence others Flexibility: adapt to the needs of followers and demands of situations Honesty and integrity: trustworthy, honest, predictable and dependable Focus on leadership behaviours: Task concerns o Plans and defines work to be done. o Assigns task responsibilities. o Sets clear work standards. o Urges task completion. o Monitors performance results. People Concerns o Acts warm and supportive toward followers. o Develops social rapport with followers. o Respects the feelings of followers. o Is sensitive to followers’ needs. o Shows trust in followers. Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid Classic leadership styles: Autocratic style: Emphasizes task over people, keeps authority and information within the leader’s tight control, and acts in a unilateral command-and-control fashion. Laissez-faire style: Shows little concern for task, lets the group make decisions, and acts with a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” Democratic style: Committed to task and people, getting things done while sharing information, encouraging participation in decision making, and helping people develop skills and competencies. www.notesolution.com CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP Fiedler’s Contingency Model Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation. This is different compared to Fielder’s mode
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