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Chapter 13

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Masoomeh Moharrer

What is the roles of information in management process? 2/1/2013 1:57:00 AM Information/knowledge – basic linkages:  DF: Knowledge worker someone whose value to org. rests w/ intellect, not physical capabilities  provide decisive competitive factor in today‟s economy  DF: intellectual capital shared knowledge of workforce use to create wealth  both irreplaceable org. resources  productivity of knowledge and knowledge workers depends on:  computer competency ability to understand computers, use them to advntg  information competency ability to use technology to locate, retrieve, evaluate, organize, analyze info for decision making What is useful information?  DF: Data raw facts/observations  DF: Information data made useful for decision making  Information drives mngment functions  Characteristics of useful info:  Timely (avail when needed/meets deadlines)  high quality (accurate/reliable)  complete (sufficient for task at hand/up-to-date)  relevant (appropriate for task at hand)  understandable Fig. 13.1 Internal/External information needs in organizations Implications of IT w/in organizations:  facilitation of communication & info sharing  operating w/ fewer middle managers  flattening of organizational structures  faster decision making  increased coordination & control  replace jobs devoted to moving info Implications of IT for relationships w/ external environment:  Helps w/ customer relationship mngmnt  Helps org. w/ supply chain mngmnt  Helps monitoring outsourcing/other business contracts Fig. 13.2 IT is breaking barriers and changing organizations Information needs of organizations:  Exchanges w/ external environment: o Father intelligence info o Provide public info  Exchanges w/in organization: o Facilitate decision making/problem solving Basic information system concepts:  DF: Information system use of latest IT to collect, organize, distribute data for use in decision making  DF: Management information system (MIS) designed to meet information needs of managers in daily decision making How do managers use information to make decisions? 2/1/2013 1:57:00 AM Managerial advantages of IT use: Planning  Better/timely access to useful info  Involving more ppl in planning Organizing  More ongoing/informed communication among all part of org.  Improved coordination/integration Leading  Improved communication w/ staff & stakeholders  Keep objectives clear Controlling  more immediate measures of performance results  allows real-time solutions to performance problems Fig. 13.3 Manager as information-processing nerve centre in management process DF: Performance deficiency actual performance being less than desired performance Performance opportunity „‟ „‟ better than desired performance Problem solving process of identifiying discrepancy btw/ actual and desired performance, taking action to resolve it Decision choice among possible alternative course of action PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACHES/STYLES:  Problem avoiders (inactive info gathering/solving probs)  Problem solvers (reactive in gathering info/solving probs)  Problem seekers (proactive in anticipating probs/opps and taking appropriate action to gain advntg) SYSTEMATIC VS. INTUITIVE THINKING DF:  Systematic thinking approaches problems in rational, analytical fashion (step-by-step)  Intuitive thinking approaches problems in flexible/spontaneous fashion  Multidimensional thinking applies both intuitive and systematic thinking  Effective multidimensional thinking requires skill at strategic opportunism ability to remain focused on long-term objectives while being flexible enough to resolve short-term problems in timely manner COGNITIVE STYLES  Sensation thinkers o Emphasize impersonal than personal  realistic approach to problem solving – hard facts, clear goals, certainty, situations of high control  Sensation feelers o Emphasize analysis/human relations realistic (prefer facts)  Intuitive thinkers o Comfortable w/ abstraction idealistic and spontaneous fashion- logical, impersonal, avoid details  Intuitive feelers o Prefer broad/global issues  comfortable w/ intangibles – value flexibility and human relationships TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS: DF: Programmed decisions  Apply solutions from past experiences to experience a routine problem  DF: Structured problems familiar, straightforward, clear w/ respect to info needs  Best applied to routine probs that can be anticipated Non-Programmed decisions  Applies specific solution created for unique problem  DF: unstructured problems ambiguities and information deficiencies  Faced by high-lvl mangement Crisis Decision making  Unexpected problem can lead to disaster if not resolved quickly/appropriately  Rules for crisi management:  Figure out what’s going on (take time to understand what‟s going on)  Remember speed matters (attack as quickly as possible)  Remember slow counts (know when to back off, wait for better opp.)  Respect danger of the unfamiliar (understand danger of all-new territory where you/others haven‟t been before)  Value
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