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GMS200 CH 2.docx

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Department
Global Management Studies
Course
GMS 200
Professor
Bamidele Adekunle
Semester
Winter

Description
CH 2 – Management Learning Past to Present Classical Management Approaches 1) Scientific Management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support, which includes four guiding action principles: 1) Develop for every job a ‘science’ that includes rules of motion, standardizes work implements, and proper working conditions, 2) carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job, 3) carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper incentives to cooperate with the job ‘science’ and 4) support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs. Motion study is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. 2) Administrative Principles: 14 principles by Henri Fayol: 1) Division of Labour—specialization of work will result in continuous improvements in skills and methods, 2) Authority—Managers and workers need to understand that managers have the right to give orders, 3) Discipline—Behaviour needs to be grounded in obedience and derived from respect, no slacking or bending of rules, 4) Unity of Command —each employee should have one, and only one, manager, 5) Unity of Direction—the leader generates a single plan, and all play in their part in executing that plan, 6) Subordination of Individual Interests— while at work, only work issues should be undertaken or considered, 7) Remuneration—all should receive fair payment for their work; employees are valuable and not simply an expense, 8) Centralization—while recognizing the difficulties in large organizations, decisions are primarily made from the top, 9) Scalar Chain (line of authority)—organizations must have clear, formal chains of command running from the top to the bottom of the organization, 10) Order—there is a place for everything, and all things should be in their place, 11) Equity—managers should be kind and fair, 12) Personnel Tenure—unnecessary turnover is to be avoided, and there should be lifetime employment for good workers, 13) Initiative—undertake work with enthusiasm and energy, and 14) Esprit de corps— work to build harmony and unity among workers. He also identified the following five rules/duties of management: 1) foresight—to complete a plan of action for the future, 2) organization—to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan, 3) command—to load, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan, 4) coordination—to fit diverse efforts together and to ensure information is shared and problems solved and 5) control—to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. He has a principles called Scalar Chain Principle: there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom in the organization; the Unity of Command Principle: each person should receive orders from only one boss; and the Unity of Direction Principle: one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objective. 3) Bureaucratic Organization: Bureaucracy is a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority. Some defining characteristics of a bureaucratic organization are as follows: Clear division of labour: jobs are well defined, and workers become highly skilled at performing them Clear hierarchy of author: authority and responsibility are well defined for each position, and each position reports to a higher-level one Formal rules and procedures: written guidelines direct behaviour and decisions in jobs, and written files are kept for historical record Impersonality: rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applies, with no one receiving preferential treatment Careers based on merit: workers are selected and promoted on ability, competency, and performance, and managers are career employees of the organization Behavioural Management Approaches: assumption: people are social and self-actualizing Follett’s Organizations as Communities: for her, groups were mechanisms through which diverse individuals could combine their talents for a greater good. The Hawthorne Studies: Relay Assembly Test-Room Studies: examination of the effect or worker fatigue on output was set, resulting in the importance of group atmosphere and more participative supervision. Employee Attitudes, Interpersonal Relations, and Group Processes: After a study, results found that groups can have strong nega
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