Organization are fast changing, as is the nature of work itself.
The economy is global, driven by innovation and technology.
Expectation for organizations and their members are very high. Organizations are
expected to continuously excel on performance criteria that include concerns for
ethics and social responsibilities, innovativeness, and employee development, as
well as more traditional measures of profitability and investment value.
When they fail, customers, investors, and employees are quick to let them know.
For individual, there are no guarantees of long term employment.
Jobs are increasingly earned and re-earned every day through one’s performance
Career are being redefined in terms of flexibility, free agency, skill portfolios, and
Career success takes lots of initiative and discipline, as well as continuous
People and their talents which can be what they know, what they learn, and what
they do with it are the ultimate foundations of organizational performance.
They represent what managers call intellectual capital, the collective brainpower or
shared knowledge of a workforce that can be used to create value.
The ultimate challenge of any organization is to combine the talents of many
people, to achieve unique and significant results.
Intellectual capital = Competency x Commitment
In order to be a successful career, you must be a source of intellectual capital for
employers and you must be someone willing to reach for heights of personal
competency and accomplishment.
This mean being a self-starter willing to continuously learn from experience, and
also becoming a valued knowledge worker someone whose mind is a critical asset
to employers and adds to the intellectual capital of the organization.
Workforce diversity describes the composition of a workforce in terms of differences
among people according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, and able-
bodiedness. Prejudice, or the holding of negative, irrational opinions and attitudes regarding
members of diverse populations, sets the stage for diversity bias.
It became active discrimination when visible minority members are unfairly treated
and denied the full benefits of organizational membership.
A subtle form of discrimination is called the glass ceiling effect, an invisible barrier or
ceiling that prevent women and members of visible minorities from rising above a
certain level of organizational responsibility.
More and more products are designed in one country, whereas their components are
sourced, and final assembly is contracted in others, and all are for sale in still others.
These are all part of the force of globalization, the worldwide interdependence of
resource flows, product markets, and business competition that characterizes our
Globalization is not an abstract concept, it is increasingly a part of the fabric of our
everyday lives, and with particular consequences for work and careers.
In our global world, countries and peoples are increasingly interconnected through
the news almost everywhere.
Government leader now worry about the competitiveness of nations, just as
corporate leaders worry about business competitiveness. Employees in a growing
number of occupations must worry about being replaced by workers in other
countries who are willing and able to perform their jobs through outsourcing and at
lower cost to employers.
The force of globalization ride on the foundations of the internet and a continuing
explosion in communication technologies. For better or worse, we live and work in a
technology driven world.
The new technology have also added great flexibility to work arrangement, allowing
people to telecommute, work from home, and maintain mobile offices while working
in nontraditional way and free from the constrains of the normal 9 to 5 schedules.
There is no excuse for senior executives in any organization to act illegally and to
tolerate management systems that enrich the few while damaging the many.
The issue is ethics a code of moral principles that sets standards of what is good
and right as opposed to bad and wrong in the conduct of a person or group.
Careers Career challenge isn’t just finding your first job; it’s also about successful career
We should be prepare to prosper in any of the shamrock’s 3 leaves: independent
contractors, full time core workers, part time temporaries. It is likely that we will be
changing jobs and employers over time so our skill must be portable and always of
value. These skill must be carefully maintained and upgraded all the time.
This mean being a portfolio worker, someone who always has the skill needed to
readily shift jobs and even careers.
Organizations in the new workplace
In order to make good employment choices and perform well in a career, you need
a fundamental understanding of the nature or organizations.
What is an organization?
An organization is a collection of people working together to achieve a common
purpose. It is a unique social phenomenon that enables its members to perform
tasks far beyond the reach of individual accomplishment. This applies to all
All organizations share a broad purpose, providing goods and services of value to
customers and clients.
Organizations as system:
Organizations are open systems that interact with their environments in the
continual process of obtaining resources inputs and then transforming them into
outputs in the form of finished goods and services for their customers
The external environment Is both the supplier of resources and the source of
Feedback from the environment indicates how well an organization is doing.
If an organization is to perform well, its resources must be well utilized and its
customers must be well served
If operation add value to the original cost of resources inputs, then 1) a business
organization can earn a profit that is sell a product for more than the cost of making
it or 2) a nonprofit organization can add wealth to society that is that is provide a
public service that is worth more than its cost.
A common way to describe how well an organization is performing overall is
productivity. It measures the quantity and quality of outputs relative to the cost of inputs. It can be measure at the individual and group as well as organizational
Productivity involves 2 common performance measures: effectiveness and
Performance effectiveness is an output measure of task or goal accomplishment.
Performance efficiency is an input measures of the resource costs associated with
Changing nature of organizations:
Change is a continuing theme in society, and organizations are certainly
undergoing dramatic changes today.
Renewed belief in human capital, demise of command and control, emphasis on
teamwork, pre-eminence of technology, embrace of networking, new workforce
expectations, concern for work life balance and focus on speed are all relevant to
Dynamic forces and the general environment:
The general environment of organizations consists of all external conditions that
set the context for managerial decision making.
It is a broad envelope of dynamic forces within which the organization exists and
important decision must be made.
Economic condition: managers must be concern about it in the general
Legal political conditions: managers must also stay abreast of developments in
legal political condition as represented by existing and proposed laws and
regulation, government policies, and the philosophy and objectives of political
Technological conditions: not only managers stay abreast of the latest technologies
for their work applications, they must also be aware of their work implications.
Socio cultural conditions: it take meaning as norms, customs, and social values on
such matters as ethics, human rights, gender roles, and lifestyle.
Natural environment condition: green is certainly an issue in our communities.
Sustainable business both meets the need of customer and protects the well-being