Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
GMS 200 (566)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes.docx

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Department
Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Professor
Ricardo Reyes

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Chapter 11 – Leading and Leadership Development Leadership – Process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks Contemporary leadership challenges: • Shorter time frames for accomplishing things • Expectations for success on the first attempt • Complex, ambiguous, and multidimensional problems • Taking a long-term view while meeting short-term demands Power – ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want • Position Power – based on things managers can offer to others o Sources of position power:  Reward power – Capability to offer something of value  Coercive power – capability to punish or withhold positive outcomes  Legitimate power – Organizational position or status confers the right to control those in subordinate positions • Personal power – based on how managers are viewed by others o Sources of personal power  Expert power – capacity to influence others because of one’s knowledge and skills  Referent power – capacity to influence others because they admire you and want to identify positively with you Visionary Leadership • Vision – a future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs • Visionary leadership – a leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership: • Challenge the process • Show enthusiasm • Help others to act • Set the example • Celebrate achievements Servant leadership • Commitment to serving others • Followers more important than leader • “other centered” not “self-centered” • Power not a “zero-sum” quantity • Focuses on empowerment, not power Empowerment – the process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence Effective leaders empower others by providing them with: • Information • Responsibility • Authority • Trust Traits that are important for leadership success: • Drive – have high energy, display initiative, and are tenacious • Self-confidence – successful leaders trust themselves and have confidence • Creativity – creative and original in their thinking • Cognitive ability – have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information • Business knowledge – know their industry • Motivation – enjoy influencing others • Flexibility – adapt to fit needs of followers • Honest and integrity – trustworthy, honest, predictable, and dependable Leadership Behaviour • Leadership behavior theories focus on how leaders behave when working with followers • Leadership styles are recurring patterns of behaviors exhibited by leaders • Basic dimensions of leadership behaviours: o Concern for the task to be accomplished o Concern for the people doing the work Task concerns: People concerns: • Plans and defines work to be • Acts warm and supportive toward done followers • Assigns task responsibilities • Develops social rapport with followers • Sets clear work standards • Respects the feelings of followers Blake and Mouton Grid: Describes how leaders vary in tendencies toward people and production concerns Classic Leadership Styles: • Autocratic style – emphasizes task over people, keeps authority and information within the leader’s tight control, and acts in an unilateral command-and-control fashion • Human relations style – emphasizes people over work • Laissez-faire style – shows little concern for task, lets the group make decisions, and acts with a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude • Democratic style – committed to task and people, getting things done while sharing information, encouraging participation in decision making, and helping people develop skills and competencies Fielder’s Contingency Model • Understanding Leadership Style: o Good leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demands o Determining leadership style on the LEAST-PREFERRED CO-WORKER SCALE (LPC):  Low LPC – Task-motivated leaders  High LPC – Relationship-motivated leaders • Understanding Leadership Situations: o Quality of leader-member relations (good or poor): measures the degree to which the group supports the leader o Degree of task structure (high or low): measures the extent to which task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out o Amount of position power (strong or weak): measures the degree to which the position gives the leader power to reward and punish subordinates • Matching Leadership style and situation o Task-oriented leader with favourable/unfavourable situations o Relationship-oriented leader with moderate control Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model • Leadership adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation • Readiness – how able, willing, and confident followers are in performing tasks • Styles: o Delegating  Low-task, low-relationship style; high-readiness  Allowing group to take responsibility or task decisions o Participating  Low-task, high-relationship style; low-to-moderate-readiness  Emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions o Selling  High-task, high-relationship style; moderate-to-high-readiness  Explaining task directions in supportive and persuasive way o Telling  High-task, low-relationship style; low-readiness  Giving specific task directions and closely supervising work Path-Goal Leadership Theory (House) • Directive leadership  used when job assignments are ambiguous o Letting subordinates know what is expected o Giving directions o Schedule work o Maintaining definite standards of performance o Clarifying leader’s role • Supportive leadership  used when worker self-confidence is low o Make work pleasant o Treat group members as equals o Be friendly and approachable o Show concern for subordinates’ well-being • Achievement-oriented leadership  used when task challenge is insufficient o Set challenging goals o Expect high performance levels o Emphasize continuous improvement o Display confidence in meeting high standards • Participative leadership  used when performance incentives are poor o Involve subordinates in decision making o Consult with subordinates o Ask for subordinates’ suggestions o Use their suggestions Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) • Not all people are treated the same by leaders in leadership situations • High LMX (in-group): o Favourable o Competency • Low LMX (out-group): o Unfavourable o Low competency Leader-Participation Model • Helps leaders choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem situation • Basic decision-making choices: o Authority decision – made by leader and then communicated to the group o Consultative dec
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