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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Management Learning Past to Present.docx

3 Pages

Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Franklin Ramsoomair

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Chapter 2: Management Learning Past to Present ● Classical Approaches o Assumption of classical approaches: People are rational. o 1) Scientific Management – emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support - founded in 1911 by Frederick Taylor - standardized tasks; proper working conditions; carefully select workers; carefully train workers; provide proper incentives; support workers - Motion Study – the science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions - Frank and Lillian Gilbreth pioneered the use of motion studies o 2) Administrative Principles - Henri Fayol identified 14 principles of management that should be taught to all aspiring managers - division of labour; authority; discipline; unity of command; unity of direction; subordination of individual interests; remuneration; centralization; scalar chain; order; equity; personnel tenure; initiative; espirit de corps - Fayol identified five rules/duties of management: foresight; organization; command; coordination; control o 3) Bureaucratic Organization – a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority - Max Weber - clear division of labour; clear hierarchy of authority; formal rules and procedures; impersonality; careers based on merit are the characteristics that define the organization ● Behavioural Management – human resource approaches include: o Follet’s notion of organizations as communities - groups are mechanisms for individuals to combine talents - organizations are co-operating “communities” - manager’s job is to foster co-operation - employees are responsible (precursor of profit-sharing, and gain-sharing) - business problems involve a variety of interrelated factors (system thinking) - private profits relative to public good (managerial ethics and social responsibility) o Hawthorne Studies – initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected work output; the tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as expected - Human Relations Movement – suggested that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity - the movement set the stage and evolved into the field of organizational behaviour, the study of individuals and groups in organizations - no consistent relationship found - “psychological factors” influenced results - productivity enhanced by: group atmosphere & participative supervision o Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs - need – a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy - physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; cognitive; aesthetic; self- actualization needs (bottom to top in pyramid) - Deficit Principle – a satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour - Prog
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