Chapter 2: Individual Behaviour; Personality, and Values
Motivation: represents the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and
persistence of voluntary behaviour. Direction refers to the path along which people engage their
Ability: includes both the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully
complete task. Aptitudes are the natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more
quickly and perform them better.
Competencies: are characteristics of a person that result in superior performance. Skills,
knowledge, aptitudes, and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance.
Role Perceptions: the extent to which people understand the job duties (roles) assigned to or
expected of them. Critical because they guide the employee’s direction of effort and improve
coordination with co-workers, suppliers and other stakeholders.
- Task performance: refers to goal-directed behaviours under the individuals control that
support organizational objectives. Types of Individual Behaviour in the Workplace
Organizational Citizenship: various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support
the organization’s social and psychological context. Companies excel when employees go the
Counterproductive Work Behaviours: voluntary behaviours that have the potential to directly
or indirectly harm the organization. (Harassing co-workers, creating conflict)
Joining and Staying with the Organization: most employers never seem to get enough
qualified staff, therefore qualified people are needed to join and stay with organization.
Maintaining WorkAttendance: organizations need everyone to show up for work at scheduled
Presenteeism: attending scheduled work when one’s capacity to perform is significantly
diminished by illness or other factors. OB experts warn that this may be more serious than being
absent when capable of working.
Personality: the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that
characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics.
Five-Factor Model of Personality:
- The five abstract dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness,
agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and extroversion. 1. Conscientiousness: personality dimension describ