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Chapter 2

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Shavin Malhotra

Chapter 2 Classical management approachesThere are three approaches to management scientific management administrative principles and bureaucratic organization The three approaches share a common assumptionpeople in the workplace act rationally by being motivated by economic concerns Scientific ManagementFredrick W Taylor believed that due to the lack of clarification of what employees were expected to do this led to a loss of efficiency and productivity he believed that this problem can be corrected by having managers correct and help them do their jobs the proper wayTaylors goal was to improve the productivity of the workforce thus he created the scientific management approach which includes four principalsFor every job there are sets of actions that must be carried out standard work implements and proper working conditionsHandpick employees who have the abilities to perform the jobTrain these employees to be able to complete the job and give them incentives to follow the set procedures and etcHelp workers by carefully planning their work and smoothing the way as they go through their jobsMotion study is the science responsible for reducing the amount of work that has to be done by reducing a task to its simple physical motions 21 management smarts practical lessons from scientific managementmake results based rewards an incentive for people to work hard carefully design jobs with efficient work methodscarefully select workers with the abilities to do these jobstrain workers to perform jobs to the best of their abilities Administrative principlesDivision of labor expertise in a certain field of work will allow individuals to continuously improve their skills and methodsAuthority the workforce needs to acknowledge the fact the managers have the power to give ordersDiscipline Behavior needs to be grounded in obedience and derived from respect No one shall slack or manipulate the rulesUnity of command each employee will have one manager and will take orders from one bossUnity of direction There will be a single plan made and the rest have to help execute the plan one person is in charge of all the activities that have the same performance objectiveSubordination of individual interests While at work only work issues should be worried aboutRemuneration All should be paid for their work as employees are valuable not an expenseCentralization While recognizing the difficulties in large organizations decisions are made from the topScalar chainline of authority organizations need a clear formal chains of command running from the top to the bottomOrder there is a place for everything and everything should be in their placeEquitymanagers should be kind and fairPersonnel tenureunnecessary firing is to be avoided and good employees should be kept for a life timeInitiative workers should engage work with zeal and energyEsprit de corps work to build harmony and cohesion among employees Fayols five rules of managementResemble the four functions of managementForesight to complete a plan of action for the futureOrganization to provide and utilize resources to execute the planCommandto lead select and evaluate workers to put forth best work toward the planCoordination to fit diverse efforts together and to make sure information is shared and problems solved
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