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Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Carmen Schifellite

Chapter 4: Product Design link b/ design and success of org quality determined during design Product design - determination of form and function of product o used to increase demand and take adv of tech o exp, time consuming, ideas die b4 mkting o tied to org strategy: customer satisfaction, competitive adv LO 1: Product Design Process Product Approval Committee - top mgmt; oversee and dir design and dev o authorize new products o ensure consistency b/ strategy and design o approve/ cancel/ redir project Core Teams - cross functional teams o empowered to plan and lead design f/ idea to commercialization o resolve issues, m/ trade off d/ o small to be effective o product manager, product designers, and mau rep o split into phases = acc, mkt, eng Phase reviews - when progress of core team reviewed by product approval committee → approve, cancel, redir o recog prob and m/ changes early = reduce cost and time o cost of changes tend to multiply with each phase Reviews - help top mgmt acquire understanding of project, close issues Phases of Product design: Structured development process - break each phase into steps → determine relationships, scheduling, execution and control 1. Idea generation/ Scoping - mkt, fin and tech eval → supplier, competitor, customer feedback, research 2. Building a business case - determine customer wants; nature of product (tech, goals and obj, performance, price, quality, input, production process); fin analysis 3. Development of product and process - voice of customer → physical product (develop product concept, test prototypes) 4. Testing and validation - external testing b4 get to customer; trial runs 5. Launch Stage Gate Model/ Phase Review - milestones during product design/ dev of project when progress of core team reviewed by product approval committee → approve/ cancel/ redir - help top mgmt acquire better understanding of project, guide project, close issues - recog prob → make necessary changes earlier = ↓cost & time in mkt - escalator effect - cost of changes multiply w/ each phase ← managed by core team = make changes in early stage - core team = cross-functional = product manager, designer, engineers, accounts, mkting team 1. Scoping - mkt, fin and tech eval → supplier, competitor, customer feedback, research 2. Building bus/ case- determine customer req, competitive analysis, tech & fin analysis, product definition 3. Development - develop product concept, test prototypes 4. Testing and validation - in-house testing and customer trials 5. Launch - mkting, 1st shipment LO 2: Sources of Ideas for New or Redesigned Products Front-line employees - m/ good/service to customers see prob in manu → feedback improve redesign of product Suppliers - contact w/ org and purchasers Marketing employees - studies of mkt, buying pattern, help craft a vision, gaps in existing mkt Customers - suggestions through focus groups/survey Reverse Engineering - dismantling competitor's product to discover how it's composed and how components work to improve own product → create even better product than competitor "leapfrog" → hardware reverse illegal Research and development (R&D) - lab scientists and eng involved in creative work on systematic basis to increase knowledge directed toward product and process innovation - develop and test prototypes → improve product reliability - product life cycle: incubation, growth, maturity, saturation, decline LO 3: Key Issues in Product Design Life Cycle - Incubation - item intro as curiosity, not all flaws taken out - Growth - design improvements → more reliable, less costly product, increase in demand - Maturity - few design changes, stagnant demand - Saturation - demand decline - Decline - prolong useful life → improve reliability, reduce cost/price, redesign, intro new sub o whether basic need there and if tech rate change Standardization - extent of absence of variety in part/product (types, size, colour) - every customer re/ same service (car wash) - Adv: save $ and time while increasing quality and reliability o reduce $ and time to train employees o produce high vol at low price - Disadv: reduction in variety → limit range of customers o manu lock obsolescence and resist modification of part - systems incompatible = lack standardization = competitive struggles Mass customization - producing std good/service but incorp some degree of customization in final product - Delayed differentiation - producing but not completing product until customer preference known (furniture) - Modular design - grouping parts into modules easily interchanged/replaced; made of components instead of collection of indiv parts (computers) 1. functional partition
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