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Chapter 7

GMS 401 Chapter 7 Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Kirk Bailey

GMS Chapter 7 Notes Design of Work Systems Job design – specifying the content (what) and method (how) of a job. The objective of job design is to increase long term productivity Current practice in job design contains elements of two basic schools of thought. One is the efficiency school, which emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labour cost reduction; the other is called the behavioural school and emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs of workers as a motivator for increased productivity. EFFICIENCY APPROACH The efficiency approach includes specialization, methods analysis and time standards. Specialization – focusing the job to a narrow scope (advantage: the ability to concentrate one’s efforts and thereby become proficient at that type of work) Other advantages of specialization for the company include simplified training, high productivity and lower wage costs. Some disadvantages for the company include difficult to motivate quality and an increased amount of worker dissatisfaction which could result in absenteeism and high turnover. Advantages of specialization for the worker include low education requirements, low skill requirements, minimum responsibilities and little mental effort needed. Disadvantages for the worker entail monotonous/boring work, limited opportunities for advancement, little control over work and little opportunity for self-fulfillment. Methods analysis – breaking down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements that try to make it more efficient The basic procedure for method analysis is the following: 1. Identify the job to be studied and gather all pertinent facts about its operation, machines, equipment, materials, etc. 2. Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor. 3. Analyze and document the present method of performing the job. 4. Question the present method and propose a new method. Process charts – a chart used to examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of the material Worker-machine chart – used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle Motion study – systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation or task (the purpose is to eliminate unnecessary motions and to identify the best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency) Motion economy principles – guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedure. These guidelines are divided into three categories: use of arms and body, arrangement of the workplace and design of tools and equipment (this was introduced by Frank Gilbreth) Micro-motion study – use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze (introduced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth) Simo Chart - a chart that shows the elementary motions performed by each hand, side by side, over time. THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH The behavioural approach is an effort to make jobs more interesting and meaningful; job designers frequently consider job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment and teams. Job enlargement – means giving a worker a large portion of the total task of making the good or prov
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