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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Professor
Shavin Malhotra

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Chapter 2: Management- Past to Present
Classical Management Approaches
1.Scientific management
2.Administrative principles
3.Bureaucratic organization
Share a common assumption: people at work act in a rational manner that is
primarily driven by economic concerns
Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor, father of scientific management,
Many workers did their jobs their own way and without clear and uniform
specifications: caused them to lose efficiency and perform below their true capacities
This problem could be corrected if workers were taught and then helped by
supervisors to always perform their jobs the right way
Concept of Time Study: analyze the motions and tasks required in any job and to
develop the most efficient ways to perform them
Linked job requirements with both job training for the worker and support from the
supervisors in the form or appropriate:
oDirection
owork assistance
omonetary incentives
Scientific management: Emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and
supervisory support with an emphasis on improving efficiency
oDevelop for each job a science. Rules of motion, standardized work
implements, and proper working conditions
oSelect workers with right abilities for the job
oTrain workers and give them proper incentives
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oSupport workers by planning their work and by smoothing the way they go
about their jobs
Motion study: is the science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions
Administrative Principles
Henry Fayol 14 Principles of management:
oDivision of labour (specialization of work, improves in skills and methods)
oAuthority
oDiscipline
oUnity of Command (each employee should only have one manager)
oUnity of Direction (the leader generates a single plan, and all play their
part in executing that plan)
oSubordination of Individual interests (while at work, only work issues should
be undertaken or considered)
oRemuneration (all should receive fair payment for their work)
oCentralization (decisions are primarily made from the top)
oScalar Chain/ Line of Authority (organizations must have clear, formal
chains of command running from the top to the bottom of the organizations)
oOrder
oEquity
oPersonnel tenure (unnecessary turnover is to avoided and there should be
lifetime employment for good employees)
oInitiative
oEsprit de corps (work to build harmony and cohesion among personnel)
Fayol also had rules/ duties in his book:
oForesight
oOrganization
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oCommand
oCoordination
oControl
Fayol: management can be taught
Mary Parker Follett: groups very good
Bureaucratic Organization
Bureaucracy: a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order,
and legitimate authority
Max Weber Characteristics of a Bureaucratic Organization
oClear division of labour
oClear hierarchy of authority
oFormal rules and procedures
oImpersonality
oCareers based on merit
Positives:
oattaining the highest degree of efficiency
oEquity of people
Negatives:
oexcessive paperwork
o slowness in handling problems
o rigidity in the face of shifting customer or client needs
o resistance to change
Behavioural Management Approaches
Approaches maintain that people are social and self-actualizing
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Description
Chapter 2: Management- Past to Present Classical Management Approaches 1. Scientific management 2. Administrative principles 3. Bureaucratic organization Share a common assumption: people at work act in a rational manner that is primarily driven by economic concerns Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor, father of scientific management, Many workers did their jobs their own way and without clear and uniform specifications: caused them to lose efficiency and perform below their true capacities This problem could be corrected if workers were taught and then helped by supervisors to always perform their jobs the right way Concept of Time Study: analyze the motions and tasks required in any job and to develop the most efficient ways to perform them Linked job requirements with both job training for the worker and support from the supervisors in the form or appropriate: o Direction o work assistance o monetary incentives Scientific management: Emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support with an emphasis on improving efficiency o Develop for each job a science. Rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions o Select workers with right abilities for the job o Train workers and give them proper incentives www.notesolution.com
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