Plans that describe exactly what actions are to be taken in specific
•Budgets and project schedules
Only used once to meet the needs and objectives of a well-defined
situation in a timely manner.
Single-use plans that commit resources to activities, projects, or
Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budgets.
One-time activities that have clear beginning and end points.
Project management and project schedules.
Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
oMaking assumptions about what will happen in the future.
oQualitative forecasting uses expert opinions.
oQuantitative forecasting uses mathematical and statistical analysis.
oAll forecasts rely on human judgment.
oPlanning involves deciding on how to deal with the implications of a forecast.
oIdentifying alternative courses of action that can be implemented to meet the
needs of changing circumstances.
oContingency plans anticipate changing conditions.
oContingency plans contain trigger points.
oA long-term version of contingency planning.
oIdentifying alternative future scenarios.
oPlans made for each future scenario.
oIncreases organization’s flexibility and preparation for future shocks.
oUse of external comparisons to better evaluate current performance and
identify possible actions for the future.
oAdopting best practices of other organizations that achieve superior
•Use of staff planners
oCoordinating the planning function for the total organization or one of its
oPossible communication gaps between staff planners and line management.
•Participation and involvement
oParticipatory planning requires that the planning process include people who
will be affected by the plans and/or will help implement them.
oBenefits of participation and involvement:
Promotes creativity in planning.