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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

5 Pages
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Department
Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Professor
Sui Sui

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Chapter 2
Classical management approaches
3 classical approaches
(1)Scientific management emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and
supervisory support with an emphasis on improving efficiency
- four guiding action principles:
1. Develop for every job a science (rules, motion study, proper working
conditions)
* motion study science of reducing task to its basic physical motions
2. Carefully select workers with right capabilities for the job
3. Carefully train workers; provide appropriate incentives
4. Support workers
- The principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for
the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee. Frederick
W. Taylor
- efficiency and performance losses can be corrected if workers are taught to do their
work correctly by their supervisors
- for overall employee productivity improvement
(2)Administrative principles
- Henri Fayols 14 principles (Page 35 Page 36)
- Henri believe that management skills could be taught
- five rules/duties of management:
1. Foresight to complete a plan of action for the future
2. Organization to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan
3. Command to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work
toward plan
4. Coordination to fit diverse work efforts together; ensure problems are
solved
5. Control to make sure things happen according to plan; necessary
corrective actions
- Mary Parker Follet: believed that making every employee an owner in the business
would create feelings of collective responsibility; through employee ownership, profit-
sharing, etc.
(3)Bureaucratic organizations
- bureaucracy rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order
www.notesolution.com
and legitimate authority
- characteristics of Webers bureaucratic organization are as follows:
1. Clear division of labour: jobs are well defined; workers become skilled
2. Clear hierarchy of authority: authority and responsibility are well-define at
all levels
3. Formal rules and procedures: written guidelines direct behaviour;
historical records
4. Impersonality: rules and procedures applied with no preferential treatment
5. Careers based on merit: workers are selected and promoted on performance
- Disadvantage of bureaucracy:
1. Excessive paperwork (red tape)
2. Slowness in handling problems
3. Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
4. Resistance to change
5. Employee apathy
Behavioural Management Approaches
The Hawthorne studies and human resources
- sought to determine how economic incentives and physical conditions of the
workplace affected the output of workers
- helped shift attention of management and management researchers away from the
technical and structural concerns of the classical approach and toward social and
human concerns as keys to productivity
- hawthorne effect tendency of people who are singled out for special attention to
perform anticipated merely because of expectations created by the situation
- human relations movement suggests that managers using good human relations
will achieve productivity
- organizational behaviour study of individuals and groups in organizations
Maslow’s theory of human needs (Abraham Maslow)
- need physiological/psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy
- five levels of human needs, from lowest to highest:
1. Physiological most basic of all human needs: need for biological
maintenance; food, water and physical well-being
2. Safety needs need for security, protection, and stability in the events of
day-to-day life
3. Social needs need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in ones
relationships with other people
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Description
Chapter 2 Classical management approaches • 3 classical approaches (1) Scientific management – emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support with an emphasis on improving efficiency - four guiding action principles: 1. Develop for every job a “science” (rules, motion study, proper working conditions) * motion study – science of reducing task to its basic physical motions 2. Carefully select workers with right capabilities for the job 3. Carefully train workers; provide appropriate incentives 4. Support workers - “The principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee.” – Frederick W. Taylor - efficiency and performance losses can be corrected if workers are taught to do their work correctly by their supervisors - for overall employee productivity improvement (2) Administrative principles - Henri Fayol’s 14 principles (Page 35 – Page 36) - Henri believe that management skills could be taught - five “rules/duties” of management: 1. Foresight – to complete a plan of action for the future 2. Organization – to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan 3. Command – to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward plan 4. Coordination – to fit diverse work efforts together; ensure problems are solved 5. Control – to make sure things happen according to plan; necessary corrective actions - Mary Parker Follet: believed that making every employee an owner in the business would create feelings of collective responsibility; through employee ownership, profit- sharing, etc. (3) Bureaucratic organizations - bureaucracy – rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order www.notesolution.com and legitimate authority - characteristics of Weber’s bureaucratic organization are as follows: 1. Clear division of labour: jobs are well defined; workers become skilled 2. Clear hierarchy of authority: authority and responsibility are well-define at all levels 3. Formal rules and procedures: written guidelines direct behaviour; historical records 4. Impersonality: rules and procedures applied with no preferential treatment 5. Careers based on merit: workers are selected and promoted on performance - Disadvantage of bureaucracy: 1. Excessive paperwork (“red tape”) 2. Slowness in handling problems 3. Rigidity in the face of shifting needs 4. Resistance to change 5. Employee apathy Behavioural Management Approaches • The Hawthorne studies and human resources - sought to determine how economic incentives and physical conditions of the workplace affected the output of workers - helped shift attention of management and management researchers away from the technical and structural concerns of the classical approach and toward social and human concerns as keys to productivity - hawthorne effect – tendency of people who are singled out for special attention to perform anticipated merely because of expectations created by the situation - human relations movement – suggests that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity - organizational behaviour – study of individuals and groups in organizations • Maslow’s theory of human needs (Abraham Maslow) - need – physiological/psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy - five levels of human needs, from lowest to highest: 1. Physiological – most basic of all human needs: need for biological maintenance; food, water and physical well-being 2. Safety needs – need for security, protection, and stability in the events of day-to-day life 3. Social needs – need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other people www.notesolution.com 4. Esteem needs – need for esteem in eyes of others; need for respect, prestige, recognition and self-esteem, personal sense of competence, mastery 5. Self-actualization needs – highest level: need for self-fulfillment; to grow and use abilities to fullest and most creative extent - list is made upon two principles:
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