GMS 200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Mary Parker Follett, Human Relations Movement, Morale
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Chapter 2 – Management – Past to Present
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
Frederick W. Taylor
oIn 1911, he published The Principles of Scientific Management, that makes
the following statement: “the principal object of management should be to
secure maximum prosperity for the employee.
oHe believed that those individuals who did work without clear specifications
lost efficiency and performed under stated capacities. Teaching and helping
was a method of avoiding this.
oHis overall goal was to improve the productivity through the following
Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper
working conditions for every job.
Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing
oLike Taylor they believed that there was an importance of studying the
motions involved in a talk in order to understand the most efficient way of
working (motion study)
oBased on one famous study the eliminated wasted motions to improve
performance ( number of motions used by brick layers were taken away and
therefore tripling their productivity)
Attempts to document and understand the experiences of successful managers
oHe believed there were 14 principles of management that should be taught to
all aspiring managers:
Division of labour – specialization of work
Authority – managers have the right to give orders
Discipline – behaviour needs to be grounded with obedience and
Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken line of
communication from the top to the bottom of the organization.
Unity of command — each person should receive orders from only one
Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of all activities
with the same performance objective.
Subordination of individual interests – only work matters should be
discussed at work
Remuneration – fair payment for work
Centralization – decisions are made at the top of the management
Order – there is a place for everything
Equity – managers should be kind and fair
Personal tenure – unnecessary turnover should be avoided.
Initiative – undertake work with zeal and energy
Esprit de corps – work to build harmony among personnel
oHe also came up with rules of management that resemble the four functions
of management (organizing, leading, controlling and planning)
Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future.
Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to implement the
Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work
toward the plan.
Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information
is shared and problems solved.
Control — to make sure things happen according to plan and to take
necessary corrective action.
Mary Parker Follett
oGroups and human cooperation:
Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their
talents for a greater good.
Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and
Manager’s job is to help people in the organization cooperate and
achieve an integration of interests.
oForward-looking management insights:
Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective
responsibility (precursor of employee ownership, profit sharing, and
Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor
of systems thinking)
Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics
and social responsibility)
oHe believed the bureaucracy was the way to correct problems about failed
performance potential by only successful or of high rank individuals in the
country (authority > job capability)
oBureaucracy : rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic,
order and legitimate authority.
oCharacteristics of his bureaucracy:
Chapter 2 management past to present. Teaching and helping was a method of avoiding this: his overall goal was to improve the productivity through the following criteria: develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. support workers by carefully planning their work and removing. attempts to document and understand the experiences of successful managers. henri fayol: he believed there were 14 principles of management that should be taught to all aspiring managers: division of labour specialization of work. authority managers have the right to give orders. discipline behaviour needs to be grounded with obedience and respect. scalar chain there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization.