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Chapter 2

GMS 200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Time And Motion Study, Human Relations Movement, Absenteeism


Department
Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Professor
Deborah De Lange
Chapter
2

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Monday, February 15, 2016
GMS 200
Chapter two
Classical Management Approach 2.1
(1) scientific management (2) administrative principles (3) bureaucratic organization
the classical approaches share a common assumptio: people at work act in a
rational manner that is primarily driven by economic concerns. workers are expected
to rationally consider opportunity made available to them and to do whatever is
necessary to achieve the greatest personal or monetary gain
Scientific Management
the principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the
employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee
frederick taylor often called the “father of scientific management”
he noticed many workers did their work in their own ways which caused them to ose
efficient and underperform. tayors goal was to improve productivity of the people at
work. used the concept of “time study” to analyze the motions and tasks required
and develop the most efficient way to preform them.
he linked these job requirements to both training for the worker and support form
supervisors in the form of proper direction, work assistance, and monetary
incentives.
Taylors approaches known as scientific management, emphasizes careful
selection and training of workers and supervisory support
includes four guiding action principles;
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Monday, February 15, 2016
develop fro every job a “science” that includes rules of notion,
standardized work implements and proper working conditions
carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job
carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper
incentives to cooperate with the job “science”
support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing
the way as they go about their jobs
motion study is the science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, pioneered the use of motion studies ad a management
tool. The Gilbreth's’ work led to later advances in the areas of job simplification, work
standards, and incentive wage plans— all techniques still used in the modern
workplace
for the example of UPS is that savings of seconds on individual stops add up to
significant increases productivity speed is the focus
Administrative Principles
Henri Fayol identified 14 principles of management
1. division of labour. specialization of work
2. authority. managers have the right to give orders
3. discipline. obedience and no slacking or bending of rules
4. unity of command. one manager
5. unity of direction. single plan that everyone follows
6. subordination of individual interests. only work issues should be undertaken at work
7. remuneration. fair payment
8. centralization. decisions are primarily made from the top
9. scalar chain (line of authority). formal chain os command
10. order. there is a place for everything and all things should be in their place
11. equity. managers should be kind and fair
12. personnel tenure. should be lifetime employment for good workers
13. initiative. undertake work with zeal and energy
14. esprit de corps. work to build harmony and cohesion among personnel
fayol identified five rules or duties of management which resemble the four functions of management
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Monday, February 15, 2016
1. foresight
2. organization
3. command
4. coordination
5. control
fayol believed management could be taught
“principles” to guide managerial action
scalar chain principle— there should be a clear and unbroken
line of communication from the top to the bottom in the
organization
unity of command principle— each person should receive
orders from only one boss
unity of direction principle— one person should be in charge
of all activities that have the same performance objective
Bureautic Organization
Max Weber had a major impact on the field of management and the sociology of
organizations. Weber was concerned that people were in positions of authority not
because of their job capabilities, but because of their social standings or status
he thought he could correct the problems— a bureaucracy, is a rational and
efficient form of organization founded on logic order and legitimate authority
the defining characteristics of Webers bureaucratic organization are as follows:
clear division of labour
clear hierarchy of authority
formal rules and procedures
impersonality
careers based on merit
believed would have the advantages of efficiency in utilizing resources and of
fairness or equity in the treatment of employees and clients
this term is now used with negative connotations. possible disadvantages of it
include excessive paperwork or “red tape”, slowness in handling problems, rigidity in
the ace of shifting customer or client needs, resistance to change and employee
apathy
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