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Chapter 2

GCM 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Typesetting, Kerning, Halftone

Graphic Communications
Course Code
GCM 110
Diana Brown

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GCM 110
p.35-42, 48-49
Type and Typographic Imaging
Prepress: the series of operations involved in the preparation and assembly of all copy
elements (materials to be reproduced in text/picture form) ready for printing on a printing
press or digital printer
Type Fundamentals
Typefaces are usually in range of 6- to 72- point, with a complete font in each size
Font: a complete assortment of any one size and style of type containing all the
characters and symbols (glyphs) for composition
Ascender: in lowercase letters, the upper stroke that rises above the x-height
Descender: in lowercase letters, the downward stroke that descends below the baseline
x-height: also called the body, is the height of the main body of the lowercase letter
Serif: the short cross line at the end of the main strokes
Sans serif: are typefaces without serifs
Letters in the same size type but different typefaces may vary in height (small on body=
small x-height, or large on body=large x-height)
Classification of Typefaces
Oldstyle: high readability because the letters are open, wide, and round with pointed
serifs (ex: Garamond and Caslon)
Modern: different from Oldstyle from the extreme contrast between thick and thin
strokes, with thin, squared-off serifs (ex: Didot and Badoni)
Round serif: contemporary type style used for display, headlines, and advertisements
(ex: Cheltenham, Souvenir, and Cooper Black)
Square serif: uses are same as Round serif. Square serif letters have square/blocked
serifs, and even in texture and weight with little contrast (ex: Rockwell)
Sans serif: simple, contains no serifs, even in overall weight with little contrast between
thick and thin strokes (ex: Helvetica, Univers, News Gothic)
Script: imitation of handwriting, used for formal invitations or announcements, contains
no serifs or extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes, and letters may touch (ex:
Commercial Script, Edwardian)
Blackletter: resembles hand-drawn letters of early scribes, used for religious documents,
certificates, diplomas, and invitations (ex: Old English)
Decorative types: novelty faces, used to attract attention (ex: Rosewood)
Type Families
Condensed, light face, medium, semi-bold, bold, extra bold, black, expanded and regular
with italic
Readability and Legibility
Readability: the easy of reading a printed page type arrangement: size, spacing
Legibility: the speed with which each word can be recognized type design
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